The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.01 - January (2012 vol.18)
pp: 81-92
Helen C. Purchase , University of Glasgow, Glasgow
Christopher Pilcher , University of Auckland, Auckland
Beryl Plimmer , University of Auckland, Auckland
ABSTRACT
Prior empirical work on layout aesthetics for graph drawing algorithms has concentrated on the interpretation of existing graph drawings. We report on experiments which focus on the creation and layout of graph drawings: participants were asked to draw graphs based on adjacency lists, and to lay them out "nicely.” Two interaction methods were used for creating the drawings: a sketch interface which allows for easy, natural hand movements, and a formal point-and-click interface similar to a typical graph editing system. We find, in common with many other studies, that removing edge crossings is the most significant aesthetic, but also discover that aligning nodes and edges to an underlying grid is important. We observe that the aesthetics favored by participants during creation of a graph drawing are often not evident in the final product and that the participants did not make a clear distinction between the processes of creation and layout. Our results suggest that graph drawing systems should integrate automatic layout with the user's manual editing process, and provide facilities to support grid-based graph creation.
INDEX TERMS
Evaluation/methodology, graphs and networks, user interfaces.
CITATION
Helen C. Purchase, Christopher Pilcher, Beryl Plimmer, "Graph Drawing Aesthetics—Created by Users, Not Algorithms", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.18, no. 1, pp. 81-92, January 2012, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2010.269
REFERENCES
[1] H. Purchase, “Which Aaesthetic Has the Greatest Effect on Human Understanding?,” Proc. Fifth Int'l Symp. Graph Drawing, pp. 248-261, 1997.
[2] W. Huang, “Using Eye Tracking to Investigate Graph Layout Effects,” Proc. Int'l Asia-Pacific Symp. Visualization (APVIS '07), pp. 97-100, 2007.
[3] F. van Ham and B. Rogowitz, “Perceptual Organization in User-Generated Graph Layouts,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1333-1339, Nov./Dec. 2008.
[4] T. Dwyer, B. Lee, D. Fisher, K. Quinn, P. Isenberg, G. Robertson, and S. North, “A Comparison of User-Generated and Automatic Graph Layouts,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 961-968, Nov./Dec. 2009.
[5] H. Purchase, B. Plimmer, R. Baker, and C. Pilcher, “Graph Drawing Aaesthetics in User-Sketched Graph Layouts,” Proc. 11th Australasian User Interface Conf., pp. 80-88, 2010.
[6] G. Battista, P. Eades, R. Tamassia, and I. Tollis, Graph Drawing: Algorithms for the Visualization of Graphs. Prentice Hall, 1998.
[7] M. Coleman and D.S. Parker, “Aaesthetics-Based Graph Layout for Human Consumption,” Software—Practice and Experience, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 1415-1438, 1996.
[8] H. Purchase, R. Cohen, and M. James, “Validating Graph Drawing Aaesthetics,” Proc. Third Int'l Symp. Graph Drawing, pp. 239-250, 1995.
[9] W. Huang, S. Hong, and P. Eades, “Layout Effects on Sociogram Perception,” Proc. 12th Int'l Symp. Graph Drawing, pp. 262-273, 2006.
[10] C. Ware, H. Purchase, L. Colpoys, and M. McGill, “Cognitive Measurements of Graph Aaesthetics,” Information Visualization, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 103-110, 2002.
[11] W. Huang, S. Hong, and P. Eades, “Effects of Sociogram Drawing Conventions and Edge Crossings in Social Network Visualization,” J. Graph Algorithms and Applications, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 397-429, 2007.
[12] E. Gansner, Y. Koren, and S. North, “Graph Drawing by Stress Majorization,” Proc. 12th Int'l Symp. Graph Drawing, pp. 239-250, 2005.
[13] F.B. Viégas, M. Wattenberg, F. van Ham, J. Kriss, and M. McKeon, “ManyEyes: A Site for Visualization at Internet Scale,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1121-1128, Nov./Dec. 2007.
[14] B. Plimmer, H. Purchase, and H. Yang, “SketchNode: Intelligent Sketching Support and Formal Diagramming,” Proc. Conf. Computer-Human Interaction Special Interest Group of Australia on Computer-Human Interaction (OzCHI '10), pp. 136-143, 2010.
[15] yWorks GmbH, “yEd Graph Editor,” www.yworks.com, Sept. 2010.
[16] “Morae Usability Software,” www.TechSmith.comMorae, Aug. 2009.
[17] H. Purchase, “Metrics for Graph Drawing Aaesthetics,” J. Visual Languages and Computing, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 501-516, 2002.
[18] J. Ellson, E. Gansner, L. Koutsofios, S. North, and G. Woodhull, “GraphViz — Open Source Graph Drawing Tools,” Proc. Ninth Int'l Symp. Graph Drawing, pp. 594-597, 2002.
[19] T. Dwyer, K. Marriott, and M. Wybrow, “Dunnart: A Constraint-Based Network Diagram Authoring Tool,” Proc. 16th Int'l Symp. Graph Drawing, pp. 420-431, 2009.
27 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool