The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.01 - January (2012 vol.18)
pp: 30-42
Fei Hou , Beihang University, Beijing
Yue Qi , Beihang University, Beijing
Hong Qin , Stony Brook University (SUNY Stony Brook), New York
This paper presents a novel modeling framework to build 3D models of Chinese architectures from elevation drawing. Our algorithm integrates the capability of automatic drawing recognition with powerful procedural modeling to extract production rules from elevation drawing. First, different from the previous symbol-based floor plan recognition, based on the novel concept of repetitive pattern trees, small horizontal repetitive regions of the elevation drawing are clustered in a bottom-up manner to form architectural components with maximum repetition, which collectively serve as building blocks for 3D model generation. Second, to discover the global architectural structure and its components' interdependencies, the components are structured into a shape tree in a top-down subdivision manner and recognized hierarchically at each level of the shape tree based on Markov Random Fields (MRFs). Third, shape grammar rules can be derived to construct 3D semantic model and its possible variations with the help of a 3D component repository. The salient contribution lies in the novel integration of procedural modeling with elevation drawing, with a unique application to Chinese architectures.
Procedural modeling, elevation drawing segmentation, elevation drawing recognition, Chinese architecture.
Fei Hou, Yue Qi, Hong Qin, "Drawing-Based Procedural Modeling of Chinese Architectures", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.18, no. 1, pp. 30-42, January 2012, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2011.22
[1] P. Wonka, M. Wimmer, F. Sillion, and W. Ribarsky, “Instant Architecture,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 669-677, 2003.
[2] P. Müller, P. Wonka, S. Haegler, A. Ulmer, and L. Van Gool, “Procedural Modeling of Buildings,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 614-623, 2006.
[3] X. Yin, P. Wonka, and A. Razdan, “Generating 3D Building Models from Architectural Drawings: A Survey,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 20-30, Jan./Feb. 2009.
[4] P.E. Debevec, C.J. Taylor, and J. Malik, “Modeling and Rendering Architecture from Photographs: A Hybrid Geometry- and Image-Based Approach,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 11-20, 1996.
[5] B.M. Oh, M. Chen, J. Dorsey, and F. Durand, “Image-Based Modeling and Photo Editing,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 433-442, 2001.
[6] A.R. Dick, P.H.S. Torr, and R. Cipolla, “Modelling and Interpretation of Architecture from Several Images,” Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 111-134, 2004.
[7] J. Xiao, T. Fang, P. Tan, P. Zhao, E. Ofek, and L. Quan, “Image-Based Façade Modeling,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1-10, 2008.
[8] J. Xiao, T. Fang, P. Zhao, M. Lhuillier, and L. Quan, “Image-Based Street-Side City Modeling,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1-12, 2009.
[9] S.N. Sinha, D. Steedly, R. Szeliski, M. Agrawala, and M. Pollefeys, “Interactive 3D Architectural Modeling from Unordered Photo Collections,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1-10, 2008.
[10] N. Jiang, P. Tan, and L.-F. Cheong, “Symmetric Architecture Modeling with a Single Image,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1-8, 2009.
[11] B. Watson, P. Müller, O. Veryovka, A. Fuller, P. Wonka, and C. Sexton, “Procedural Urban Modeling in Practice,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 18-26, May/June 2008.
[12] C.A. Vanegas, D.G. Aliaga, P. Wonka, P. Müller, P. Waddell, and B. Watson, “Modelling the Appearance and Behaviour of Urban Spaces,” Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 29, pp. 25-42, 2010.
[13] G.N. Stiny, Pictorial and Formal Aspects of Shape and Shape Grammars. Birkhauser Verlag, 1975.
[14] M. Lipp, P. Wonka, and M. Wimmer, “Interactive Visual Editing of Grammars for Procedural Architecture,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 1-10, 2008.
[15] D.G. Aliaga, P.A. Rosen, and D.R. Bekins, “Style Grammars for Interactive Visualization of Architecture,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 786-797, July/Aug. 2007.
[16] P. Müller, G. Zeng, P. Wonka, and L. Van Gool, “Image-Based Procedural Modeling of Façades,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 26, no. 3, p. 85, 2007.
[17] E. Whiting, J. Ochsendorf, and F. Durand, “Procedural Modeling of Structurally-Sound Masonry Buildings,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1-9, 2009.
[18] X. Hilaire and K. Tombre, “Robust and Accurate Vectorization of Line Drawings,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 890-904, June 2006.
[19] L.A. Fletcher and R. Kasturi, “A Robust Algorithm for Text String Separation from Mixed Text/Graphics Images,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 910-918, Nov. 1988.
[20] C. Ah-Soon and K. Tombre, “Architectural Symbol Recognition Using a Network of Constraints,” Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 231-248, 2001.
[21] S. Yang, “Symbol Recognition via Statistical Integration of Pixel-Level Constraint Histograms: A New Descriptor,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 278-281, Feb. 2005.
[22] R. Lewis and C. Séuin, “Generation of 3D Building Models from 2D Architectural Plans,” Computer-Aided Design, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 765-779, 1998.
[23] T. Lu, C.L. Tai, F. Su, and S. Cai, “A New Recognition Model for Electronic Architectural Drawings,” Computer-Aided Design, vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 1053-1069, 2005.
[24] P. Dosch, K. Tombre, C. Ah-Soon, and G. Masini, “A Complete System for the Analysis of Architectural Drawings,” Int'l J. Document Analysis and Recognition, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 102-116, 2000.
[25] X. Chen, S.B. Kang, Y.-Q. Xu, J. Dorsey, and H.-Y. Shum, “Sketching Reality: Realistic Interpretation of Architectural Designs,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 1-15, 2008.
[26] A. Berg, F. Grabler, and J. Malik, “Parsing Images of Architectural Scenes,” Proc. IEEE 11th Int'l Conf. Computer Vision (ICCV), pp. 1-8, Oct. 2007.
[27] J. Pearl, “Reverend Bayes on Inference Engines: A Distributed Hierarchical Approach,” Proc. Am. Assoc. of Artificial Intelligence Nat'l Conf. AI, pp. 133-136, 1982.
[28] S.L. Lauritzen and D.J. Spiegelhalter, “Local Computations with Probabilities on Graphical Structures and Their Application to Expert Systems,” J. Royal Statistical Soc. Series B (Methodological), vol. 50, pp. 157-224, 1988.
[29] J. Mooij and H. Kappen, “Sufficient Conditions for Convergence of the Sum-Product Algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 4422-4437, Dec. 2007.
[30] J.S. Yedidia, W.T. Freeman, and Y. Weiss, Understanding Belief Propagation and Its Generalizations, pp. 239-269. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc., 2003.
[31] Y. Weiss and W. Freeman, “On the Optimality of Solutions of the Max-Product Belief-Propagation Algorithm in Arbitrary Graphs,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 736-744, Feb. 2001.
[32] Y. Boykov, O. Veksler, and R. Zabih, “Fast Approximate Energy Minimization via Graph Cuts,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 1222-1239, Nov. 2001.
[33] Y. Boykov and V. Kolmogorov, “An Experimental Comparison of Min-Cut/Max-Flow Algorithms for Energy Minimization in Vision,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1124-1137, Sept. 2004.
[34] W.T. Freeman, E.C. Pasztor, and O.T. Carmichael, “Learning Low-Level Vision,” Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 25-47, 2000.
[35] J. Sun, L. Yuan, J. Jia, and H.-Y. Shum, “Image Completion with Structure Propagation,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 861-868, 2005.
[36] J. Podolak, P. Shilane, A. Golovinskiy, S. Rusinkiewicz, and T. Funkhouser, “A Planar-Reflective Symmetry Transform for 3D Shapes,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 549-559, 2006.
[37] N.J. Mitra, L.J. Guibas, and M. Pauly, “Partial and Approximate Symmetry Detection for 3D Geometry,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 560-568, 2006.
[38] M. Pauly, N.J. Mitra, J. Wallner, H. Pottmann, and L.J. Guibas, “Discovering Structural Regularity in 3D Geometry,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 1-11, 2008.
[39] M. Bokeloh, A. Berner, M. Wand, H.-P. Seidel, and A. Schilling, “Symmetry Detection Using Feature Lines,” Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 697-706, 2009.
[40] K. Xu, H. Zhang, A. Tagliasacchi, L. Liu, G. Li, M. Meng, and Y. Xiong, “Partial Intrinsic Reflectional Symmetry of 3D Shapes,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1-10, 2009.
[41] Y. Liu, R.T. Collins, and Y. Tsin, “A Computational Model for Periodic Pattern Perception Based on Frieze and Wallpaper Groups,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 354-371, Mar. 2004.
[42] G. Loy and J.-O. Eklundh, “Detecting Symmetry and Symmetric Constellations of Features,” Proc. European Conf. Computer Vision (ECCV), vol. 2, pp. 508-521, 2006.
[43] H. Cornelius and G. Loy, “Detecting Bilateral Symmetry in Perspective,” Proc. Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshop (CVPRW '06), pp. 191-191, 2006.
[44] S. Liang, Qing Shi Ying Zao Ze Li. Tsinghua Univ. Press, 2006.
[45] S. Liang, A Pictorial History of Chinese Architecture: A Study of the Development of Its Structural System and the Evolution of Its Types, W. Fairbank, ed. MIT Press, 1984.
[46] S. Liang, Qing Gong Bu “Gong Cheng Zuo Fa Ze Li” Tu Jie. Tsinghua Univ. Press, 2006.
[47] A.I.-k. Li, “A Shape Grammar for Teaching the Architectural Style of the Yingzao Fashi,” PhD dissertation, Massachusetts Inst. of Tech nology, 2001.
[48] C.M. Bishop, Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning. Springer-Verlag 2006.
5 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool