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Issue No.12 - Dec. (2011 vol.17)
pp: 2153-2162
Roy van Pelt , Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
Javier Olivan Bescos , Philips Healthcare, The Netherlands
Marcel Breeuwer , Philips Healthcare, The Netherlands
Rachel E. Clough , NIHR Comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre of Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London, United Kingdom
M. Eduard Gröller , Vienna University of Technology, Austria
Bart ter Haar Romenij , Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
Anna Vilanova , Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
ABSTRACT
Better understanding of hemodynamics conceivably leads to improved diagnosis and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, an elaborate analysis of the blood-flow in heart and thoracic arteries is essential. Contemporary MRI techniques enable acquisition of quantitative time-resolved flow information, resulting in 4D velocity fields that capture the blood-flow behavior. Visual exploration of these fields provides comprehensive insight into the unsteady blood-flow behavior, and precedes a quantitative analysis of additional blood-flow parameters. The complete inspection requires accurate segmentation of anatomical structures, encompassing a time-consuming and hard-to-automate process, especially for malformed morphologies. We present a way to avoid the laborious segmentation process in case of qualitative inspection, by introducing an interactive virtual probe. This probe is positioned semi-automatically within the blood-flow field, and serves as a navigational object for visual exploration. The difficult task of determining position and orientation along the view-direction is automated by a fitting approach, aligning the probe with the orientations of the velocity field. The aligned probe provides an interactive seeding basis for various flow visualization approaches. We demonstrate illustration-inspired particles, integral lines and integral surfaces, conveying distinct characteristics of the unsteady blood-flow. Lastly, we present the results of an evaluation with domain experts, valuing the practical use of our probe and flow visualization techniques.
INDEX TERMS
Probing, Flow visualization, Illustrative visualization, Multivalued images, Phase-contrast cine MRI.
CITATION
Roy van Pelt, Javier Olivan Bescos, Marcel Breeuwer, Rachel E. Clough, M. Eduard Gröller, Bart ter Haar Romenij, Anna Vilanova, "Interactive Virtual Probing of 4D MRI Blood-Flow", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.17, no. 12, pp. 2153-2162, Dec. 2011, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2011.215
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