The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.10 - October (2011 vol.17)
pp: 1380-1392
Susanna Nilsson , Linköping University, Linköping
Björn J.E. Johansson , The Swedish Defence Research Institute, Linköping
Arne Jönsson , Santa Anna IT Research Institute, Linköping
This paper presents a study where Augmented Reality (AR) technology has been used as a tool for supporting collaboration between the rescue services, the police and military personnel in a crisis management scenario. There are few studies on how AR systems should be designed to improve cooperation between actors from different organizations while at the same time supporting individual needs. In the present study, an AR system was utilized for supporting joint planning tasks by providing organization specific views of a shared map. The study involved a simulated emergency event conducted in close to real settings with representatives from the organizations for which the system is developed. As a baseline, a series of trials without the AR system was carried out. Results show that the users were positive toward the AR system and would like to use it in real work. They also experience some performance benefits of using the AR system compared to their traditional tools. Finally, the problem of designing for collaborative work as well as the benefits of using an iterative design processes is discussed.
Collaborative augmented reality, augmented reality, user evaluation.
Susanna Nilsson, Björn J.E. Johansson, Arne Jönsson, "Cross-Organizational Collaboration Supported by Augmented Reality", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.17, no. 10, pp. 1380-1392, October 2011, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2010.249
[1] M. Cross and C. Bopping, “Collaborative Planning Processes in Command and Control,” Proc. Fourth Int'l in Command and Control Research and Technology Symp., 1998.
[2] M. Billinghurst and H. Kato, “Collaborative Augmented Reality,” Comm. ACM, vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 64-70, July 2002.
[3] S. Kjeld, “Editorial,” Computer Supported Cooperative Work, vol. 9, no. 2, p. 155, 2000.
[4] E. Hutchins, Cognition in the Wild. MIT Press, 1995.
[5] G. Salomon, “No Distribution without Individuals' Cognition: A Dynamic Interact ional View,” Distributed Cognitions: Psychological and Educational Considerations, G. Salomon, ed., pp. 111-138, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1993.
[6] L.S. Vygotsky, Mind In Soc., Harvard Univ. Press, 1978.
[7] Context and Consciousness: Activity Theory and Human-Computer Interaction. B.A. Nardi, ed., MIT Press, 1996.
[8] A. Fuhrmann, H. Löffelmann, and D. Schmalstieg, “Collaborative Augmented Reality: Exploring Dynamical Systems,” IEEE Visualization, R. Yagel and H. Hagen, eds., pp. 459-462, IEEE, Nov. 1997.
[9] H.H. Clark, Using Language. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1996.
[10] C. McCann and R. Pigeau, “The Human in Command,” The Human in Command; Exploring the Modern Military Experience, M. C and P. R, eds., Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2000.
[11] C. Gutwin and S. Greenberg, “The Importance of Awareness for Team Cognition in Distributed Collaboration,” Technical Report 2001-696-19, Dept. Computer Science, Univ. of Calgary, 2001.
[12] R. Azuma, “A Survey of Augmented Reality,” Presence, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 355-385, 1997.
[13] M. Haller, M. Billinghurst, and B.H. Thomas, Emerging Technologies of Augmented Reality. IGI Publishing, 2006.
[14] S. Nilsson and B. Johansson, “Fun and Usable: Augmented Reality Instructions in a Hospital Setting,” Proc. Conf. Australasian Computer—Human Interaction (OZCHI '07), pp. 123-130, Nov. 2007.
[15] S. Nilsson and B. Johansson, “Acceptance of Augmented Reality Instructions in a Real Work Setting,” Proc. Conf. Computer—Human Interaction (CHI '08), pp. 2025-2032, Apr. 2008.
[16] A. Tang, C. Owen, F. Biocca, and W. Mou, “Experimental Evaluation of Augmented Reality in Object Assembly Task,” Proc. IEEE First Int'l Symp. Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR '02) p. 265, 2002.
[17] A. Dünser, K. Steinbügl, H. Kaufmann, and J. Glück, “Virtual and Augmented Reality as Spatial Ability Training Tools,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Computer—Human Interaction: Design Centered HCI, pp. 125-132, July 2006.
[18] A. Henrysson, M. Ollila, and M. Billinghurst, “Mobile Phone Based AR Scene Assembly,” Proc. Fourth Int'l Conf. Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia (MUM '05), pp. 95-102, 2005.
[19] P. Renevier and L. Nigay, “Mobile Collaborative Augmented Reality: The Augmented Stroll,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 2254, 2001.
[20] D. Schmalstieg, A. Fuhrmann, Z. Szalavri, and M. Gervautz, “Studierstube: An Environment for Collaboration in Augmented Reality,” Proc. Workshop Collaborative Virtual Environments (CVE '96), 1996.
[21] A. Henrysson, M. Billinghurst, and M. Ollila, “Face to Face Collaborative AR on Mobile Phones,” Proc. Fourth IEEE/ACM Int'l Symp. Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR '05), pp. 80-89, 2005.
[22] A. Morrison, A. Oulasvirta, P. Peltonen, S. Lemmela, G. Jacucci, G. Reitmayr, J. Näsänen, and A. Juustila, “Like Bees around the Hive: A Comparative Study of a Mobile Augmented Reality Map,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '09), pp. 1889-1898, 2009.
[23] M. Träskbäck, “Toward a Usable Mixed Reality Authoring Tool,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Visual Languages—Human Centric Computing (VLHCC '04), pp. 160-162, 2004.
[24] S. Nilsson and B. Johansson, “A Cognitive Systems Engineering Perspective on the Design of Mixed Reality Systems,” Proc. European Conf. Cognitive Ergonomics (ECCE '06), pp. 154-161, 2006.
[25] E. Hollnagel and D.D. Woods, “Cognitive Systems Engineering: New Wine in New Bottles,” Int'l J. Man—Machine Studies, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 583-600, 1983.
[26] D.D. Woods and E. Hollnagel, “Mapping Cognitive Demands in Complex Problem—Solving Worlds,” Int'l J. Man-Machine Studies, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 257-275, 1987.
[27] E. Hollnagel, “Is Affective Computing an Oxymoron?” Int'l J. Human—Computer Studies, vol. 59, nos. 1-2, pp. 65-70, 2003.
[28] E. Hollnagel and D.D. Woods, Joint Cognitive Systems: Foundations of Cognitive Systems Eng. CRC Press, 2005.
[29] D.D. Woods and E.M. Roth, “Cognitive Engineering: Human Problem Solving with Tools,” Human Factors, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 415-430, 1988.
[30] T.E. Drabek and J.E. Haas, “Realism in Laboratory Simulation: Myth or Method?” Social Forces, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 337-346, 1967.
[31] R. Samuracy and J. Rogalski, “Cooperative Work and Decision Making in Emergency Management,” Le Travail Human, vol. 56, pp. 53-77, 1993.
[32] B. Johansson, M. Persson, R. Granlund, and P. Matsson, “C3fire in Command and Control Research,” Cognition, Technology and Work, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 191-196, 2001.
[33] H. Kato and M. Billinghurst, “Marker Tracking and HMD Calibration for a Video—Based Augmented Reality Conferencing System,” Proc. Second Int'l Workshop Augmented Reality (IWAR '99), 1999.
[34] R. Grasset, P. Lamb, and M. Billinghurst, “Evaluation of Mixed— Space Collaboration,” : Proc. Fourth IEEE/ACM Int'l Symp. Mixed and Augmented Reality (SMAR '05), pp. 90-99, 2005.
[35] R. Granlund, “Web—Based Micro—World Simulation for Emergency Management Training,” Proc. Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 17, pp. 561-572, 2001.
[36] S. Nilsson, B. Johansson, and A. Jönsson, “Using AR to Support Cross—Organisational Collaboration in Dynamic Tasks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR '09), 2009.
[37] M. Fjeld, K. Lauche, M. Bichsel, F. Voorhorst, H. Krueger, and M. Rauterberg, “Physical and Virtual Tools: Activity Theory Applied to the Design of Groupware,” Computer Supported Cooperative Work, vol. 11, nos. 1-2, pp. 153-180, 2002.
20 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool