This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Closed-Loop Feedback Illumination for Optical Inverse Tone-Mapping in Light Microscopy
June 2011 (vol. 17 no. 6)
pp. 857-870
Oliver Bimber, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz
Daniel Klöck, Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
Toshiyuki Amano, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara
Anselm Grundhöfer, Bauhaus-University Weimar, Weimar
Daniel Kurz, Bauhaus-University Weimar, Weimar
In this paper, we show that optical inverse tone-mapping (OITM) in light microscopy can improve the visibility of specimens, both when observed directly through the oculars and when imaged with a camera. In contrast to previous microscopy techniques, we premodulate the illumination based on the local modulation properties of the specimen itself. We explain how the modulation of uniform white light by a specimen can be estimated in real time, even though the specimen is continuously but not uniformly illuminated. This information is processed and back-projected constantly, allowing the illumination to be adjusted on the fly if the specimen is moved or the focus or magnification of the microscope is changed. The contrast of the specimen's optical image can be enhanced, and high-intensity highlights can be suppressed. A formal pilot study with users indicates that this optimizes the visibility of spatial structures when observed through the oculars. We also demonstrate that the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio in digital images of the specimen is higher if captured under an optimized rather than a uniform illumination. In contrast to advanced scanning techniques that maximize the S/N ratio using multiple measurements, our approach is fast because it requires only two images. This can improve image analysis in digital microscopy applications with real-time capturing requirements.

[1] A.A. Adeyemi, N. Barakat, and T.E. Darcie, "Applications of Digital Micro-Mirror Devices to Digital Optical Microscope Dynamic Range Enhancement," Optics Express, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 1831-1843, 2009.
[2] R.E. Alley, "Decorrelation Stretching as an Aid to Image Interpretation," Int'l J. Remote Sensing, vol. 8, pp. 1253-1254, 1987.
[3] R.E. Alley, "Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for Decorrelation Stretch," technical report, Ver. 2.2, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Aug. 1996.
[4] T. Amano and H. Kato, "Real World Dynamic Appearance Enhancement with Procam Feedback," Proc. Int'l Workshop Projector-Camera Systems (Poster), 2008.
[5] F. Banterle, P. Ledda, K. Debattista, and A. Chalmers, "Inverse Tone Mapping," Proc. Conf. Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques in Australasia and Southeast Asia, pp. 349-356, 2006.
[6] O. Bimber and D. Iwai, "Superimposing Dynamic Range," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1-8, 2008.
[7] M. Brown, A. Majumder, and R. Yang, "Camera-Based Calibration Techniques for Seamless Multi-Projector Displays," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 193-206, 2005.
[8] P.E. Debevec and J. Malik, "Recovering High Dynamic Range Radiance Maps from Photographs," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 369-378, 1997.
[9] A.F. Desimone and B. Crary, "Spatial Light Modulator Apparatus," Int'l Patent WO 03/040798 A1, May 2003.
[10] K. Fujii, M.D. Grossberg, and S.K. Nayar, "A Projector-Camera System with Real-Time Photometric Adaptation for Dynamic Environments," Proc. IEEE CS Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, vol. 1, pp. 814-821, 2005.
[11] C. Gao, N. Ahuja, and H. Hua, "Active Aperture Control and Sensor Modulation for Flexible Imaging," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 1-8, 2007.
[12] R.M. Haralick and L.G. Shapiro, Computer and Robot Vision, vol. 1, pp. 28-48, Addison-Wesley, 1992.
[13] M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, and M. Horowitz, "Light Field Microscopy," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 924-934, 2006.
[14] M. Levoy, Z. Zhang, and I. McDowall, "Recording and Controlling the 4D Light Field in a Microscope," J. Microscopy, vol. 235, pp. 144-162, 2009.
[15] H. Mannami, R. Sagawa, Y. Mukaigawa, T. Echigo, and Y. Yagi, "High Dynamic Range Camera Using Reflective Liquid Crystal," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 1-8, 2007.
[16] D.B. Murphy, Fundamentals of Light Microscopy and Electronic Imaging. Wiley-Liss, 2001.
[17] S.K. Nayar and V. Branzoi, "Adaptive Dynamic Range Imaging: Optical Control of Pixel Exposures Over Space and Time," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 1168-1175, 2003.
[18] S.K. Nayar, V. Branzoi, and T.E. Boult, "Programmable Imaging Using a Digital Micromirror Array," Proc. IEEE CS Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. I-436-I-443, 2004.
[19] S.K. Nayar, G. Krishnan, M.D. Grossberg, and R. Raskar, "Fast Separation of Direct and Global Components of a Scene Using High Frequency Illumination," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 935-944, 2006.
[20] M.A.A. Neil, T. Wilson, and R. Juskaitis, "A Wavefront Generator for Complex Pupil Function Synthesis and Point Spread Function Engineering," J. Microscopy, vol. 197, no. 3, pp. 219-223, 2000.
[21] M.V. Newberry, "Signal-to-Noise Considerations for Sky-Subtracted CCD Data," Publications of the Astronomical Soc. of the Pacific, vol. 103, pp. 122-130, 1991.
[22] A.Y.M. Ng, C.W. See, and M.G. Somekh, "Quantitative Optical Microscope with Enhanced Resolution Using a Pixelated Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator," J. Microscopy, vol. 214, no. 3, pp. 334-340, 2004.
[23] N. Otsu, "A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms," IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 62-66, Jan. 1979.
[24] H. Park, M.-H. Lee, B.-K. Seo, H.-C. Shin, and J.-I. Park, "Radiometrically-Compensated Projection onto Non-Lambertian Surface Using Multiple Overlapping Projectors," Proc. Pacific-Rim Symp. Image and Video Technology, pp. 534-544, 2006.
[25] S.M. Pizer, E.P. Amburn, J.D. Austin, R. Cromartie, A. Geselowitz, T. Greer, B.M. ter Haar Romeny, J.B. Zimmerman, and K. Zuiderveld, "Adaptive Histogram Equalization and Its Variations," Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing, vol. 39, pp. 355-368, 1987.
[26] E.C. Samson and C.M. Blanca, "Dynamic Contrast Enhancement in Widefield Microscopy using Projector-Generated Illumination Patterns," New J. Physics, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 363-377, 2007.
[27] H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, and A. Vorozcovs, "High Dynamic Range Display Systems," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 760-768, 2004.
[28] P.J. Verveer, Q.S. Hanley, P.W. Verbeek, L.J. van Vliet, and T.M. Jovin, "Theory of Confocal Fluorescence Imaging in the Programable Array Microscope," J. Microscopy, vol. 189, no. 3, pp. 192-198, 1998.
[29] G. Wetzstein, D. Luebke, and W. Heidrich, "Optical Image Processing Using Light Modulation Displays," to be published in Computer Graphics Forum.
[30] K. Zuiderveld, "Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization," Graphics Gems IV, P.S. Heckbert, ed., Chapter VIII.5, pp. 474-485, Academic Press, 1994.

Index Terms:
Computer graphics, picture/image generation, display algorithms, image processing, enhancement.
Oliver Bimber, Daniel Klöck, Toshiyuki Amano, Anselm Grundhöfer, Daniel Kurz, "Closed-Loop Feedback Illumination for Optical Inverse Tone-Mapping in Light Microscopy," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 857-870, June 2011, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2010.104
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.