The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.06 - June (2011 vol.17)
pp: 808-821
Lyndsey Clarke , Swansea University, Swansea
Min Chen , Swansea University, Swansea
Benjamin Mora , Swansea University, Swansea
ABSTRACT
Caricatures are a form of humorous visual art, usually created by skilled artists for the intention of amusement and entertainment. In this paper, we present a novel approach for automatic generation of digital caricatures from facial photographs, which capture artistic deformation styles from hand-drawn caricatures. We introduced a pseudo stress-strain model to encode the parameters of an artistic deformation style using “virtual” physical and material properties. We have also developed a software system for performing the caricaturistic deformation in 3D which eliminates the undesirable artifacts in 2D caricaturization. We employed a Multilevel Free-Form Deformation (MFFD) technique to optimize a 3D head model reconstructed from an input facial photograph, and for controlling the caricaturistic deformation. Our results demonstrated the effectiveness and usability of the proposed approach, which allows ordinary users to apply the captured and stored deformation styles to a variety of facial photographs.
INDEX TERMS
Computer-generated imagery, caricaturization, caricature art, example-based deformation, pseudo stress-strain model, nonphotorealistic rendering, sketch-based modeling.
CITATION
Lyndsey Clarke, Min Chen, Benjamin Mora, "Automatic Generation of 3D Caricatures Based on Artistic Deformation Styles", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.17, no. 6, pp. 808-821, June 2011, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2010.76
REFERENCES
[1] D. Johnson, "Draw My Face," http:/www.drawmyface.co.uk, 2008.
[2] L. Redman, How to Draw Caricatures. Contemporary Books, 1984.
[3] Cartoon Stock, "George W. Bush Caricatures," www.cartoonstock. com, 2008.
[4] L. Clarke, M. Chen, B. Mora, and P. Townsend, "Elastic Facial Caricature Warping," Proc. Eurographics (EG '06) Short Papers, 2006.
[5] T. Leyvand, D. Cohen-Or, G. Dror, and D. Lischinski, "Data-Driven Enhancement of Facial Attractiveness," to be published in Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, vol. 27, no. 3, Aug. 2008.
[6] E. Akleman, J. Palmer, and R. Logan, "Making Extreme Caricatures with a New Interactive 2D Deformation Technique with Simplicial Complexes," Proc. Conf. Visual, pp. 100-105, 2000.
[7] E. Akleman and J. Reisch, "Modeling Expressive 3D Caricatures," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 2004 Sketches, p. 61, 2004.
[8] L. Liang, H. Chen, Y.-Q. Xu, and H.-Y. Shum, "Example-Based Caricature Generation with Exaggeration," Proc. 10th Pacific Conf. Computer Graphics and Applications, 2002.
[9] S. Brennan, "Caricature Generator: The Dynamic Exaggeration of Faces by Computer," LEONARDO, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 392-400, 1985.
[10] Z. Mo, J. Lewis, and U. Neumann, "Improved Automatic Caricature by Feature Normalizatioln and Exaggeration," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, 2004.
[11] B. Gooch, E. Reinhard, and A. Gooch, "Human Facial Illustrations: Creation and Psychophysical Evaluation," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 27-44, 2004.
[12] J.C. Kolar and E.M. Salter, Craniofacial Anthropometry: Practical Measurement of the Head and Face for Clinical, Surgical, and Research Use. Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1997.
[13] L. Varshney, "Face Metamorphosis and Face Caricature: A User's Guide," http://www.mit.edu/lrv/cornell/publications 426Report2.pdf, Oct. 2004.
[14] P. Chiang, W. Liao, and T. Li, "Automatic Caricature Generation by Analyzing Facial Features," Proc. Asian Conf. Computer Vision (ACCV '04), 2004.
[15] G. Fu, Y. Chen, J. Liu, J. Zhou, and P. Li, "Interactive Expressive 3D Caricatures Design," Proc. Conf. IEEE Multimedia and Expo, pp. 965-968, 2008.
[16] T. Fujiwara, H. Koshimizu, K. Fujimura, G. Fujita, Y. Noguchi, and N. Ishikawa, "3D Modeling System of Human Face and Full 3D Facial Caricaturing," Proc. Conf. Virtual Systems and Multimedia, 2001.
[17] J. Liu, Y. Chen, and W. Gao, "Mapping Learning in Eigenspace for Harmonious Caricature Generation," Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Multimedia, pp. 683-686, 2006.
[18] X. Gao, Y. Chen, J. Liu, and J. Zhou, "Personalized 3D Caricature Generation Based on PCA Subspace," Proc. Pacific Rim Conf. Multimedia (PCM '08), pp. 713-720, 2008.
[19] E. Akleman, "Automatic Creation of Expressive Caricatures: A Grand Challenge for Computer Graphics," Proc. Symp. Computational Aesthetics, 2005.
[20] P.J. Benson and D.I. Perret, "Perception and Recognition of Photographic Quality Facial Caricatures: Implications for the Recognition of Natural Images," European J. Cognitive Psychology 3, vol. 1, pp. 105-135, 1991.
[21] T.W. Sederberg and S.R. Parry, "Free-Form Deformation of Solid Geometric Models," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, vol. 20, pp. 151-160, 1986.
[22] J.P. Lewis, M. Cordner, and N. Fong, "Pose Space Deformation: A Unified Approach to Shape Interpolation and Skeleton-Driven Deformation," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 165-172, 2000.
[23] M. Botsch and L. Kobbelt, "Real-Time Shape Editing Using Radial Basis Functions," Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 611-621, 2005.
[24] S.F.F. Gibson and B. Mirtich, "A Survey of Deformable Modeling in Computer Graphics," technical report, Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories (MERL), 1997.
[25] S.-Y. Lee, K.-Y. Chwa, S.Y. Shin, and G. Wolberg, "Image Metamorphosis Using Snakes and Free-Form Deformations," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 439-448, 1995.
[26] D. Zorin, P. Schroder, and W. Sweldens, "Interactive Mutiresolution Mesh Editing," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 259-268, 1997.
[27] L. Kobbelt, S. Campagna, J. Vorsatz, and H.-P. Seidel, "Interactive Multi-Resolution Modeling on Arbitrary Meshes," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 105-114, 1998.
[28] A. Nealen, M. Müller, R. Keiser, E. Boxerman, and M. Carlson, "Physically Based Deformable Models in Computer Graphics," Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 25, pp. 809-836, 2006.
[29] M. Chen, C. Correa, S. Islam, M.W. Jones, P.-Y. Shen, D. Silver, S.J. Walton, and P.J. Willis, "Manipulating, Deforming and Animating Sampled Object Representations," Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 26, pp. 824-852, 2007.
[30] J. Noh and U. Newmann, "A Survey of Facial Modeling and Animation Techniques," Technical Report TR1998-99-705, Integrated Media Systems Center, Univ. of Southern California, 1998.
[31] L. Olsen, F. Samavati, M. Sousa, and J. Jorge, "Sketch-Based Modeling: A Survey," Computers & Graphics, vol. 33, pp. 85-103, 2009.
[32] P. Company, A. Piquer, M. Contero, and F. Naya, "A Survey on Geometrical Reconstruction as a Core Technology to Sketch-Based Modeling," Computers & Graphics, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 892-904, 2005.
[33] T. Igarashi, S. Matsuoka, and H. Tanaka, "Teddy: A Sketching Interface for 3D Freeform Design," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 409-416, 1999.
[34] J. Zimmermann, A. Nealen, and M. Alexa, "SilSketch: Automated Sketch-Based Editing of Surface Meshes," Proc. Eurographics Workshop Sketch-Based Interfaces and Modeling (EG SBIM '07), pp. 23-30, 2007.
[35] "3D Generic Head Data Set," Max Plank Institut Informatik— Computer Graphics, http:/www.mpi-inf.mpg.de/, 2007.
[36] C. Braun, M. Gruendl, C. Marberger, and C. Scherber, "Beautycheck," http:/www.beautycheck.de, 2001.
[37] C.-H. Lin and J-L. Wu, "Automatic Facial Feature Extraction by Genetic Algorithms," IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 834-845, June 1999.
[38] K. Wojciechowski, B. Smolka, H. Palus, R.S. Kozera, W. Skarbek, and L. Noakes, "Automatic Facial Feature Extraction," Computer Vision and Graphics, pp. 400-405, Springer, 2006.
[39] W.-S. Lee, J. Gu, and N. Magnenat-Thalmann, "Generating Animatable 3D Virtual Humans from Photographs," Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 1-10, 2000.
[40] V. Blanz and T. Vetter, "Face Recognition Based on Fitting a 3D Morphable Model," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 1063-1074, Sept. 2003.
[41] L. Zhang and D. Samaras, "Face Recognition from a Single Training Image under Arbitrary Unknown Lighting Using Spherical Harmonics," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 351-363, Mar. 2003.
[42] J. Nocedal and S.J. Wright, Numerical Optimization. Springer, 2006.
[43] H. Yuxiao, J. Dalong, Y. Shuicheng, Z. Lei, and Z. Hongjiang, "Automatic 3D Reconstruction for Face Recognition," Proc. Int'l Conf. Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition 2004, pp. 843-848, 2004.
[44] D. Hubball, M. Chen, and P.W. Grant, "Image-Based Aging Using Evolutionary Computing," Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 607-616, 2008.
[45] R.C. Zeleznik, K.P. Herndon, and J.F. Hughes, "SKETCH: An Interface for Sketching 3D Scenes," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 163-170, 1996.
[46] S. Lee, G. Wolberg, K.Y. Chwa, and S.Y. Shin, "Image Metamorphosis with Scattered Feature Constraints," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 337-354, Dec. 1996.
[47] G. Hirota, R. Maheshwari, and M.C. Lin, "Fast Volume-Preserving Free Form Deformation Using Multi-Level Optimization," Proc. ACM Symp. Solid Modeling and Applications (SMA '99), pp. 234-245, 1999.
[48] L. Piegl and W. Tiller, The NURBS Book. Springer, 1995.
[49] L. Clarke, "The Automatic Generation of 3D Caricatures from a Single Facial Photograph," http://cs.swan.ac.uk/~cslyndseyPhDThesis_LyndseyClarke.pdf , 2006.
[50] Atlas Of Stress-Strain Curves, H.E. Boyer, ed. ASM Int'l, 2002.
[51] R.R. Craig, Mechanics of Materials. John Wiley and Sons, 1999.
[52] L. Clarke, "A User Study to Determine the Most Intuitive and Preferred Method for Computer-Assisted Caricature Generation," technical report, Swansea Univ., 2009.
[53] G. Halbert, "Greg Halbert Celebrity Caricatures," http:/www.greghalbert.com, 2009.
17 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool