The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.04 - April (2011 vol.17)
pp: 539-552
Daniel Archambault , UCD Casl, Dublin
Helen C. Purchase , University of Glasgow, Glasgow
Bruno Pinaud , LaBRI UMR CNRS, Talence
ABSTRACT
In this paper, we present the results of a human-computer interaction experiment that compared the performance of the animation of dynamic graphs to the presentation of small multiples and the effect that mental map preservation had on the two conditions. Questions used in the experiment were selected to test both local and global properties of graph evolution over time. The data sets used in this experiment were derived from standard benchmark data sets of the information visualization community. We found that small multiples gave significantly faster performance than animation overall and for each of our five graph comprehension tasks. In addition, small multiples had significantly more errors than animation for the tasks of determining sets of nodes or edges added to the graph during the same timeslice, although a positive time-error correlation coefficient suggests that, in this case, faster responses did not lead to more errors. This result suggests that, for these two tasks, animation is preferable if accuracy is more important than speed. Preserving the mental map under either the animation or the small multiples condition had little influence in terms of error rate and response time.
INDEX TERMS
Dynamic graph drawing, small multiples, animation, mental map preservation, evaluation.
CITATION
Daniel Archambault, Helen C. Purchase, Bruno Pinaud, "Animation, Small Multiples, and the Effect of Mental Map Preservation in Dynamic Graphs", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.17, no. 4, pp. 539-552, April 2011, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2010.78
REFERENCES
[1] D. Archambault, "Structural Differences Between Two Graphs through Hierarchies," Proc. Graphics Interface, pp. 87-94, 2009.
[2] D. Auber, "Tulip: A Huge Graph Visualization Framework," Graph Drawing Software, P. Mutzel and M. Jünger, eds., pp. 105-126, Springer-Verlag, 2003.
[3] L. Bartram and C. Ware, "Filtering and Brushing with Motion," Information Visualization, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 66-79, 2002.
[4] K. Boitmanis, U. Brandes, and C. Pich, "Visualizing Internet Evolution on the Autonomous Systems Level," Proc. Graph Drawing (GD '07), pp. 365-376, 2007.
[5] U. Brandes and S.R. Corman, "Visual Unrolling of Network Evolution and the Analysis of Dynamic Discourse," Information Visualization, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 40-50, 2003.
[6] U. Brandes, D. Fleischer, and T. Puppe, "Dynamic Spectral Layout of Small Worlds," Proc. Graph Drawing (GD '05), pp. 25-36, 2005.
[7] U. Brandes and D. Wagner, "A Bayesian Paradigm for Dynamic Graph Layout," Proc. Graph Drawing (GD '97), pp. 236-247, 1997.
[8] E.H. Chi and S.K. Card, "Sensemaking of Evolving Web Sites Using Visualization Spreadsheets," Proc. IEEE Symp. Information Visualization (InfoVis '99), pp. 18-25, 1999.
[9] R.F. Cohen, G.D. Battista, I.G. Tollis, R.F. Cohen, R. Tamassia, and I.G. Tollis, "A Framework for Dynamic Graph Drawing," Proc. ACM Symp. Computational Geometry, pp. 261-270, 1992.
[10] S. Diehl and C. Görg, "Graphs, They are Changing—Dynamic Graph Drawing for a Sequence of Graphs," Proc. Graph Drawing (GD '02), pp. 23-31, 2002.
[11] P. Eades, W. Lai, K. Misue, and K. Sugiyama, "Preserving the Mental Map of a Diagram," Proc. Compugraphics, pp. 24-33, 1991.
[12] C. Erten, P.J. Harding, S. Kobourov, K. Wampler, and G.V. Yee, "GraphAEL: Graph Animations with Evolving Layouts," Proc. Graph Drawing (GD '03), pp. 98-110, 2003.
[13] P.M. Fitts, "The Information Capacity of the Human Motor System in Controlling the Amplitude of Movement," J. Experimental Psychology, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 381-391, 1954.
[14] Y. Frishman and A. Tal, "Dynamic Drawing of Clustered Graphs," Proc. IEEE Symp. Information Visualization (InfoVis '04), pp. 191-198, 2004.
[15] Y. Frishman and A. Tal, "Online Dynamic Graph Drawing," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 727-740, July/Aug. 2008.
[16] Gapminder. www.gapminder.org, 2010.
[17] C. Görg, P. Birke, M. Pohl, and S. Diehl, "Dynamic Graph Drawing of Sequences of Orthogonal and Hierarchical Graphs," Proc. Graph Drawing (GD '04), pp. 228-238, 2004.
[18] A.L. Griffen, A.M. MacEachren, F. Hardisty, E. Steiner, and B. Li, "A Comparison of Animated Maps with Static Small-Multiple Maps for Visually Identifying Space-Time Clusters," Annals of the Assoc. of Am. Geographers, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 740-753, 2006.
[19] G. Grinstein, C. Plaisant, and J. Scholtz, IEEE VAST 2008 Challenge, www.cs.umd.edu/hcilVASTchallenge08, 2008.
[20] G. Kumar, and M. Garland, "Visual Exploration of Complex Time-Varying Graphs," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 805-812, Sept./Oct. 2006.
[21] B. Lee, C.S. Parr, J.-D. Fekete, and N. Henry, "Task Taxonomy for Graph Visualization," Proc. AVI Workshop BEyond Time and Errors: Novel Evaluation Methods for Information Visualization (BELIV '06), pp. 1-5, 2006.
[22] Y. Lee, C. Lin, and H. Yen, "Mental Map Preserving Graph Drawing Using Simulated Annealing," Proc. Asia-Pacific Symp. Information Visualisation, pp. 179-188, 2006.
[23] K. Misue, P. Eades, W. Lai, and K. Sugiyama, "Layout Adjustment and the Mental Map," J. Visual Languages and Computing, vol. 6, pp. 183-210, 1995.
[24] S. Moen, "Drawing Dynamic Trees," IEEE Software, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 21-28, July 1990.
[25] S. North, "Incremental Layout in DynaDAG," Proc. Graph Drawing (GD '95), pp. 409-418, 1995.
[26] H.C. Purchase, E. Hoggan, and C. Görg, "How Important Is the "Mental Map"?—An Empirical Investigation of a Dynamic Graph Layout Algorithm," Proc. Graph Drawing (GD '06), pp. 184-195, 2006.
[27] H.C. Purchase and A. Samra, "Extremes are Better: Investigating Mental Map Preservation in Dynamic Graphs," Proc. Diagrams '08, pp. 60-73, 2008.
[28] G. Robertson, R. Fernandez, D. Fisher, B. Lee, and J. Stasko, "Effectiveness of Animation in Trend Visualization," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1325-1332, Nov./Dec. 2008.
[29] P. Saffrey and H.C. Purchase, "The 'Mental Map' versus 'Static Aesthetic' Compromise in Dynamic Graphs: A User Study," Proc. Ninth Australasian User Interface Conf., pp. 85-93, 2008.
[30] E. Tufte, Envisioning Information. Graphics Press, 1990.
[31] B. Tversky, J. Morrison, and M. Betrancourt, "Animation: Can It Facilitate?" Int'l J. Human-Computer Studies, vol. 57, pp. 247-262, 2002.
[32] C. Ware, Information Visualization: Perception for Design. Morgan Kaufmann, 2004.
[33] C. Ware and R. Bobrow, "Motion to Support Rapid Interactive Queries on Node-Link Diagrams," ACM Trans. Applied Perception, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 3-18, 2004.
[34] Q. Ye, T. Zhu, D. Hu, B. Wu, N. Du, and B. Wang, "Cell Phone Mini Challenge Award: Social Network Accuracy Exploring Temporal Communication in Mobile Call Graphs," Proc. IEEE Symp. Visual Analytics Science and Technology, pp. 207-208, 2008.
14 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool