The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.02 - February (2011 vol.17)
pp: 244-254
Sachin Patil , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill
Jur van den Berg , University of California Berkeley, Berkeley
Sean Curtis , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill
Ming C. Lin , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill
Dinesh Manocha , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill
ABSTRACT
We present a novel approach to direct and control virtual crowds using navigation fields. Our method guides one or more agents toward desired goals based on guidance fields. The system allows the user to specify these fields by either sketching paths directly in the scene via an intuitive authoring interface or by importing motion flow fields extracted from crowd video footage. We propose a novel formulation to blend input guidance fields to create singularity-free, goal-directed navigation fields. Our method can be easily combined with the most current local collision avoidance methods and we use two such methods as examples to highlight the potential of our approach. We illustrate its performance on several simulation scenarios.
INDEX TERMS
Multiagent systems, animation, virtual reality.
CITATION
Sachin Patil, Jur van den Berg, Sean Curtis, Ming C. Lin, Dinesh Manocha, "Directing Crowd Simulations Using Navigation Fields", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.17, no. 2, pp. 244-254, February 2011, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2010.33
REFERENCES
[1] D. Thalmann, C. O'Sullivan, P. Ciechomski, and S. Dobbyn, Populating Virtual Environments with Crowds, Eurographics Tutorial Notes, 2006.
[2] N. Pelechano, J.M. Allbeck, and N.I. Badler, Virtual Crowds: Methods, Simulation and Control. Morgan and Claypool Publishers, 2008.
[3] S.M. LaValle, Planning Algorithms. Cambridge Univ. Press, http://msl.cs.uiuc.eduplanning/, 2006.
[4] C. Reynolds, "Flocks, Herds and Schools: A Distributed Behavioral Model," ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics, vol. 21, pp. 25-34, 1987.
[5] C. Reynolds, "Steering Behaviors for Autonomous Characters," Proc. Game Developers Conf., 1999.
[6] D. Helbing, I. Farkas, and T. Vicsek, "Simulating Dynamical Features of Escape Panic," Nature, vol. 407, pp. 487-490, cond-mat/0009448, http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat0009448, Sept. 2000.
[7] A. Kirchner and A. Schadschneider, "Simulation of Evacuation Processes Using a Bionics Inspired Cellular Automaton Model for Pedestrian Dynamics," Physica A, vol. 312, nos. 1/2, pp. 260-276, Sept. 2002.
[8] J. van den Berg, M. Lin, and D. Manocha, "Reciprocal Velocity Obstacles for Realtime Multi-Agent Navigation," Proc. IEEE Conf. Robotics and Automation, pp. 1928-1935, 2008.
[9] J. van den Berg, S. Patil, J. Sewall, D. Manocha, and M. Lin, "Interactive Navigation of Multiple Agents in Crowded Environments," Proc. Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, pp. 139-147, 2008.
[10] D.C. Brogan and J.K. Hodgins, "Group Behaviors for Systems with Significant Dynamics," Autonomous Robots, vol. 4, pp. 137-153, 1997.
[11] S.R. Musse and D. Thalmann, "A Model of Human Crowd Behavior: Group Inter-Relationship and Collision Detection Analysis," Proc. Workshop Computer Animation and Simulation, pp. 39-51, 1997.
[12] T. Sakuma, T. Mukai, and S. Kuriyama, "Psychological Model for Animating Crowded Pedestrians: Virtual Humans and Social Agents," Computer Animation Virtual Worlds, vol. 16, pp. 343-351, 2005.
[13] N. Pelechano, J.M. Allbeck, and N.I. Badler, "Controlling Individual Agents in High-Density Crowd Simulation," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symp. Computer Animation, pp. 99-108, 2007.
[14] M. Sung, M. Gleicher, and S. Chenney, "Scalable Behaviors for Crowd Simulation," Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 519-528, Sept. 2004.
[15] W. Shao and D. Terzopoulos, "Autonomous Pedestrians," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symp. Computer Animation, pp. 19-28, 2005.
[16] Q. Yu and D. Terzopoulos, "A Decision Network Framework for the Behavioral Animation of Virtual Humans," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symp. Computer Animation, pp. 119-128, 2007.
[17] S. Paris, J. Pettre, and S. Donikian, "Pedestrian Reactive Navigation for Crowd Simulation: A Predictive Approach," Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 26, pp. 665-674, 2007.
[18] B. Yersin, J. Maim, P. Ciechomski, S. Schertenleib, and D. Thalmann, "Steering a Virtual Crowd Based on a Semantically Augmented Navigation Graph," Proc. Int'l Workshop Crowd Simulation (VCROWDS), 2005.
[19] J. Pettré, H. Grillon, and D. Thalmann, "Crowds of Moving Objects: Navigation Planning and Simulation," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '08: ACM SIGGRAPH Classes, pp. 1-7, 2008.
[20] S. Chenney, "Flow Tiles," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symp. Computer Animation, pp. 233-242, 2004.
[21] X. Jin, J. Xu, C.C.L. Wang, S. Huang, and J. Zhang, "Interactive Control of Large Crowd Navigation in Virtual Environment Using Vector Field," IEEE Computer Graphics and Application, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 37-46, Nov. 2008.
[22] A. Treuille, S. Cooper, and Z. Popovic, "Continuum Crowds," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 1160-1168, 2006.
[23] H. Lee, M. Choi, Q. Hong, and J. Lee, "Group Behavior from Video: A Data-Driven Approach to Crowd Simulation," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symp. Computer Animation, pp. 109-118, 2007.
[24] A. Lerner, Y. Chrysanthou, and D. Lischinski, "Crowds by Example," Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 655-664, 2007.
[25] S.R. Musse, C.R. Jung, J.C.S. Jacques, and A. Braun, "Using Computer Vision to Simulate the Motion of Virtual Agents," Computer Animation Virtual Worlds, vol. 18, pp. 83-93, 2007.
[26] N. Courty and T. Corpetti, "Crowd Motion Capture," Computer Animation Virtual Worlds, vol. 18, pp. 361-370, 2007.
[27] J. Pettré, J. Ondrej, A. Olivier, A. Cretual, and S. Donikian, "Experiment-Based Modeling, Simulation and Validation of Interactions between Virtual Walkers," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symp. Computer Animation, pp. 189-198, 2009.
[28] A. Lerner, E. Fitusi, Y. Chrysanthou, and D. Cohen-Or, "Fitting Behaviors to Pedestrian Simulations," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symp. Computer Animation, pp. 199-208, 2009.
[29] M. Hu, S. Ali, and M. Shah, "Learning Motion Patterns in Crowded Scenes Using Motion Flow Field," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Pattern Recognition (ICPR), pp. 1-5, 2008.
[30] B. Ulicny, O. Ciechomski, and D. Thalmann, "Crowdbrush: Interactive Authoring of Real-Time Crowd Scenes," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symp. Computer Animation, pp. 243-252, 2004.
[31] R.A. Metoyer and J. Hodgins, "Reactive Pedestrian Path Following from Examples," Proc. Int'l Conf. Computer Animation and Social Agents, pp. 149-156, 2003.
[32] M. Oshita and Y. Ogiwara, "Sketch-Based Interface for Crowd Animation," Proc. 10th Int'l Symp. Smart Graphics, pp. 253-262, 2009.
[33] T. Kwon, K.H. Lee, J. Lee, and S. Takahashi, "Group Motion Editing," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 1-8, 2008.
[34] S. Takahashi, K. Yoshida, T. Kwon, K.H. Lee, J. Lee, and S.Y. Shin, "Spectral-Based Group Formation Control," Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 28, pp. 639-648, 2009.
[35] L. Prasso, J. Buhler, and J. Gibbs, "The PDI Crowd System for ANTZ," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '98 Conf. Abstracts and Applications, p. 313, 1998.
[36] MASSIVE, http:/www.massivesoftware.com, 2006.
[37] J.J. van Wijk, "Image Based Flow Visualization," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '02, pp. 745-754, 2002.
[38] E. Zhang, K. Mischaikow, and G. Turk, "Vector Field Design on Surfaces," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 1294-1326, 2006.
[39] M. Fisher, P. Schroder, M. Desbrun, and H. Hoppe, "Design of Tangent Vector Fields," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 26, no. 3, 2007.
[40] J. Stam, "Flows on Surfaces of Arbitrary Topology," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 22, pp. 724-731, 2003.
[41] G. Still, "Crowd Dynamics," PhD dissertation, Univ. of Warwick, 2000.
[42] G. Arechavaleta, J.-P. Laumond, H. Hicheur, and A. Berthoz, "An Optimality Principle Governing Human Walking," IEEE Trans. Robotics, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 5-14, 2008.
[43] O.B. Bayazit, J. Lien, and N.M. Amato, "Roadmap-Based Flocking for Complex Environments," Proc. Pacific Conf. Computer Graphics and Applications, pp. 104-113, 2002.
[44] G. Chen, G. Esch, P. Wonka, P. Müller, and E. Zhang, "Interactive Procedural Street Modeling," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 1-10, 2008.
[45] D. Ferguson and A. Stentz, "Field D∗: An Interpolation-Based Path Planner and Replanner," Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics, vol. 28, pp. 239-253, 2007.
[46] J. Sethian and A. Vladimirsky, "Ordered Upwind Methods for Static Hamilton-Jacobi Equations: Theory and Algorithms," SIAM J. Numerical Analysis, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 325-363, 2003.
[47] RVOLibrary, "RVO Library: Reciprocal Velocity Obstacles for Real-Time Multi-Agent Simulation," http://gamma.cs.unc.edu/RVO/Libraryindex.html , 2008.
[48] Horde3D, http:/www.horde3d.org, 2007.
[49] M. Paravisi, A. Werhli, J.J. Junior, R. Rodrigues, C.R. Jung, and S.R. Musse, "Continuum Crowds with Local Control," Proc. Computer Graphics Int'l Conf., pp. 108-115, 2008.
[50] S.J. Guy, J. Chhugani, C. Kim, N. Satish, M. Lin, D. Manocha, and P. Dubey, "Clearpath: Highly Parallel Collision Avoidance for Multi-Agent Simulation," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symp. Computer Animation, pp. 177-187, 2009.
22 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool