Subscribe

Issue No.02 - February (2011 vol.17)

pp: 159-170

Tobias Rick , RWTH-Aachen, Aachen

Arne Schmitz , RWTH-Aachen, Aachen

Torsten Kuhlen , RWTH-Aachen, Aachen

Leif Kobbelt , RWTH Aachen University, Aachen

DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TVCG.2010.96

ABSTRACT

Conventional beam tracing can be used for solving global illumination problems. It is an efficient algorithm and performs very well when implemented on the GPU. This allows us to apply the algorithm in a novel way to the problem of radio wave propagation. The simulation of radio waves is conceptually analogous to the problem of light transport. We use a custom, parallel rasterization pipeline for creation and evaluation of the beams. We implement a subset of a standard 3D rasterization pipeline entirely on the GPU, supporting 2D and 3D frame buffers for output. Our algorithm can provide a detailed description of complex radio channel characteristics like propagation losses and the spread of arriving signals over time (delay spread). Those are essential for the planning of communication systems required by mobile network operators. For validation, we compare our simulation results with measurements from a real-world network. Furthermore, we account for characteristics of different propagation environments and estimate the influence of unknown components like traffic or vegetation by adapting model parameters to measurements.

INDEX TERMS

Ray tracing, rendering, electromagnetic propagation.

CITATION

Tobias Rick, Arne Schmitz, Torsten Kuhlen, Leif Kobbelt, "Efficient Rasterization for Outdoor Radio Wave Propagation",

*IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics*, vol.17, no. 2, pp. 159-170, February 2011, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2010.96REFERENCES

- [1] J.T. Kajiya, "The Rendering Equation,"
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '86, pp. 143-150, 1986.- [2] A. Lehnert, "Systematic Errors of the Ray-Tracing Algorithm,"
Applied Acoustics, vol. 38, pp. 207-221, 1993.- [3] L. Seiler, D. Carmean, E. Sprangle, T. Forsyth, M. Abrash, P. Dubey, S. Junkins, A. Lake, J. Sugerman, R. Cavin, R. Espasa, E. Grochowski, T. Juan, and P. Hanrahan, "Larrabee: A Many-Core x86 Architecture for Visual Computing,"
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '08, pp. 1-15, 2008.- [4] R. Overbeck, R. Ramamoorthi, and W.R. Mark, "A Real-Time Beam Tracer with Application to Exact Soft Shadows,"
Proc. Eurographics Symp. Rendering (EGSR), 2007.- [5] A. Schmitz, T. Rick, T. Karolski, T. Kuhlen, and L. Kobbelt, "Simulation of Radio Wave Propagation by Beam Tracing,"
Proc. Eurographics Assoc., K. Debattista, D. Weiskopf, and J. Comba, eds., pp. 17-24, http://www.eg.org/EG/DL/WS/EGPGV/EGPGV 09 017-024.pdf, 2009.- [6] T. Whitted, "An Improved Illumination Model for Shaded Display,"
Comm. ACM, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 343-349, 1980.- [7] D.R. Horn, J. Sugerman, M. Houston, and P. Hanrahan, "Interactive K-d Tree gpu Raytracing,"
Proc. 2007 Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics and Games (I3D '07), pp. 167-174, 2007.- [8] N.A. Carr, J. Hoberock, K. Crane, and J.C. Hart, "Fast gpu Ray Tracing of Dynamic Meshes Using Geometry Images,"
Proc. Graphics Interface 2006 (GI '06), pp. 203-209, 2006.- [9] C. Dachsbacher, M. Stamminger, G. Drettakis, and F. Durand, "Implicit Visibility and Antiradiance for Interactive Global Illumination,"
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, 2007.- [10] N. Tsingos, T. Funkhouser, A. Ngan, and I. Carlbom, "Modeling Acoustics in Virtual Environments Using the Uniform Theory of Diffraction,"
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '01, pp. 545-552, 2001.- [11] N. Tsingos, E. Gallo, and G. Drettakis, "Perceptual Audio Rendering of Complex Virtual Environments,"
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '04, pp. 249-258, 2004.- [12] T. Funkhouser, P. Min, and I. Carlbom, "Real-Time Acoustic Modeling for Distributed Virtual Environments,"
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '99, pp. 365-374, 1999.- [13] J. Stam, "Diffraction Shaders,"
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '99, pp. 101-110, 1999.- [14] T.S. Rappaport,
Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1995.- [15]
COST Action 273: Mobile Broadband Multimedia Networks, Final Report, L.M. Correia, ed. Academic Press, 2006.- [16] M. Hata, "Empirical Formula for Propagation Loss in Land Mobile Radio Services,"
IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. VT-29, no. 3, pp. 317-325, Aug. 1980.- [17] F. Ikegami, S. Yoshida, T. Takeuchi, and M. Umehira, "Propagation Factors Controlling Mean Field Strength on Urban Streets,"
IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, vol. AP-32, no. 8, pp. 822-829, Aug. 1984.- [18]
COST Action 231: Digital Mobile Radio Towards Future Generation Systems, Final Report, E. Damosso, ed. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1999.- [19] F. Ikegami, T. Takeuchi, and S. Yoshida, "Theoretical Prediction of Mean Field Strength for Urban Mobile Radio,"
IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 299-302, Mar. 1991.- [20] K.R. Schaubach and N.J. Davis,IV, and T.S. Rappaport, "A Ray Tracing Method for Predicting Path Loss and Delay Spread in Microcellular Environments,"
Proc. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf., vol. 2, pp. 932-935, May 1992.- [21] A. Schmitz and L. Kobbelt, "Wave Propagation Using the Photon Path Map,"
Proc. Int'l Workshop Performance Evaluation of Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor and Ubiquitous Networks (PE-WASUN '06), pp. 158-161, 2006.- [22] S.-C. Kim, B.J. Guarino, T.M.W. Willis,III, V. Erceg, S.J. Fortune, R.A. Valenzuela, L.W. Thomas, J. Ling, and J.D. Moore, "Radio Propagation Measurements and Prediction Using Three-Dimensional Ray Tracing in Urban Environments at 908 MHz and 1.9 GHz,"
IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 931-946, May 1999.- [23] P.S. Heckbert and P. Hanrahan, "Beam Tracing Polygonal Objects,"
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '84, pp. 119-127, 1984.- [24] A. Chandak, C. Lauterbach, M. Taylor, Z. Ren, and D. Manocha, "Ad-Frustum: Adaptive Frustum Tracing for Interactive Sound Propagation,"
IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1707-1722, Nov./Dec. 2008.- [25] A. Rajkumar, B.F. Naylor, F. Feisullin, and L. Rogers, "Predicting rf Coverage in Large Environments Using Ray-Beam Tracing and Partitioning Tree Represented Geometry,"
Wireless Network, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 143-154, 1996.- [26] S. Fortune, "A Beam-Tracing Algorithm for Prediction of Indoor Radio Propagation,"
Proc. Workshop Applied Computational Geometry (WACG), M.C. Lin and D. Manocha, eds., pp. 157-166, 1996.- [27] D. Catrein, M. Reyer, and T. Rick, "Accelerating Radio Wave Propagation Predictions by Implementation on Graphics Hardware,"
Proc. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf., pp. 510-514, 2007.- [28] T. Rick and R. Mathar, "Fast Edge-Diffraction-Based Radio Wave Propagation Model for Graphics Hardware,"
Proc. IEEE Second Int'l ITG Conf. Antennas, pp. 15-19, Mar. 2007.- [29] J. Pineda, "A Parallel Algorithm for Polygon Rasterization,"
SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 17-20, 1988.- [30] A.S. Glassner,
Graphics Gems. Academic Press, Inc., 1990.- [31]
NVIDIA CUDA Reference Manual 2.2, 2009.- [32]
The OpenCL Specification, A. Munshi, ed. Khronos OpenCL Working Group, 2009.- [33] J.B. Keller, "Geometrical Theory of Diffraction,"
J. Optical Soc. of Am., vol. 52, pp. 116-130, 1962.- [34] K. Levenberg, "A Method for the Solution of Certain Problems in Least Squares,"
Applied Math., vol. 2, pp. 164-168, 1944.- [35] R. Mathar, M. Reyer, and M. Schmeink, "3D Ray Launching Algorithm for Urban Field Strength Prediction,"
Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC), 2007.- [36] R. Wahl, G. Wölfle, P. Wertz, P. Wildbolz, and F. Landstorfer, "Dominant Path Prediction Model for Urban Scenarios,"
Proc. 14th IST Mobile and Wireless Comm. Summit, 2005.- [37] C. Schneider, "Multi-User Mimo Channel Reference Data for Channel Modelling and System Evaluation from Measurements,"
Proc. Int'l ITG Workshop Smart Antennas, Feb. 2009. |