The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.05 - September/October (2010 vol.16)
pp: 729-741
Greg Nichols , University of Iowa, Iowa City
Chris Wyman , University of Iowa, Iowa City
ABSTRACT
Global illumination provides a visual richness not achievable with the direct illumination models used by most interactive applications. To generate global effects, numerous approximations attempt to reduce global illumination costs to levels feasible in interactive contexts. One such approximation, reflective shadow maps, samples a shadow map to identify secondary light sources whose contributions are splatted into eye space. This splatting introduces significant overdraw that is usually reduced by artificially shrinking each splat's radius of influence. This paper introduces a new multiresolution approach for interactively splatting indirect illumination. Instead of reducing GPU fill rate by reducing splat size, we reduce fill rate by rendering splats into a multiresolution buffer. This takes advantage of the low-frequency nature of diffuse and glossy indirect lighting, allowing rendering of indirect contributions at low resolution where lighting changes slowly and at high-resolution near discontinuities. Because this multiresolution rendering occurs on a per-splat basis, we can significantly reduce fill rate without arbitrarily clipping splat contributions below a given threshold—those regions simply are rendered at a coarse resolution.
INDEX TERMS
Global illumination, interactive rendering, reflective shadow maps, multiresolution splatting.
CITATION
Greg Nichols, Chris Wyman, "Interactive Indirect Illumination Using Adaptive Multiresolution Splatting", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.16, no. 5, pp. 729-741, September/October 2010, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2009.97
REFERENCES
[1] S. Zhukov, A. Iones, and G. Kronin, "An Ambient Light Illumination Model," Proc. Eurographics Rendering Workshop, pp. 44-45, 1998.
[2] P.-P. Sloan, J. Kautz, and J. Snyder, "Precomputed Radiance Transfer for Real-Time Rendering in Dynamic, Low-Frequency Lighting Environments," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 21, pp. 527-536, 2002.
[3] E. Tabellion and A. Lamorlette, "An Approximate Global Illumination System for Computer Generated Films," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 469-476, 2004.
[4] C. Dachsbacher and M. Stamminger, "Reflective Shadow Maps," Proc. Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, pp. 203-231, 2005.
[5] C. Dachsbacher and M. Stamminger, "Splatting Indirect Illumination," Proc. Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, pp. 93-100, 2006.
[6] A. Keller, "Instant Radiosity," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, 1997.
[7] P. Hanrahan, D. Salzman, and L. Aupperle, "A Rapid Hierarchical Radiosity Algorithm," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, 1991.
[8] M.F. Cohen and J.R. Wallace, Radiosity and Realistic Image Synthesis. Academic Press Professional, citeseer.ist.psu.edu cohen93radiosity.html , 1993.
[9] M. Bunnell, "Dynamic Ambient Occlusion and Indirect Lighting," GPU Gems 2, Addison-Wesley, pp. 223-233, 2005.
[10] J. Kontkanen and S. Laine, "Ambient Occlusion Fields," Proc. Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, 2005.
[11] M. Malmer, F. Malmer, U. Assarsson, and N. Holzschuch, "Fast Precomputed Ambient Occlusion for Proximity Shadows," J. Graphics Tools, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 59-71, 2007.
[12] A.W. Kristensen, T. Akenine-Möller, and H.W. Jensen, "Precomputed Local Radiance Transfer for Real-Time Lighting Design," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1208-1215, 2005.
[13] K. Zhou, Y. Hu, S. Lin, B. Guo, and H.-Y. Shum, "Precomputed Shadow Fields for Dynamic Scenes," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1196-1201, 2005.
[14] K. Iwasaki, Y. Dobashi, F. Yoshimoto, and T. Nishita, "Precomputed Radiance Transfer for Dynamic Scenes Taking into Account Light Interreflection," Proc. Eurographics Symp. Rendering, pp. 35-44, 2007.
[15] J. Kautz, J. Lehtinen, and T. Aila, "Hemispherical Rasterization for Self-Shadowing of Dynamic Objects," Proc. Eurographics Symp. Rendering, pp. 179-184, 2004.
[16] Z. Ren, R. Wang, J. Snyder, K. Zhou, X. Liu, B. Sun, P.-P. Sloan, H. Bao, Q. Peng, and B. Guo, "Real-Time Soft Shadows in Dynamic Scenes Using Spherical Harmonic Exponentiation," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 977-986, 2006.
[17] S. Laine, H. Saransaari, J. Kontkanen, J. Lehtinen, and T. Aila, "Incremental Instant Radiosity for Real-Time Indirect Illumination," Proc. Eurographics Symp. Rendering, 2007.
[18] T. Ritschel, T. Grosch, J. Kautz, and S. Mueller, "Interactive Illumination with Coherent Shadow Maps," Proc. Eurographics Symp. Rendering, 2007.
[19] T. Ritschel, T. Grosch, M.H. Kim, H.-P. Seidel, C. Dachsbacher, and J. Kautz, "Imperfect Shadow Maps for Efficient Computation of Indirect Illumination," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH Asia, 2008.
[20] C. Dachsbacher, M. Stamminger, G. Drettakis, and F. Durand, "Implicit Visibility and Antiradiance for Interactive Global Illumination," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 26, no. 3, p. 61, 2007.
[21] Z. Dong, J. Kautz, C. Theobalt, and H.-P. Seidel, "Interactive Global Illumination Using Implicit Visibility," Proc. Pacific Graphics, pp. 77-86, 2007.
[22] T. Saito and T. Takahashi, "Comprehensible Rendering of 3-d Shapes," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 197-206, 1990.
[23] H. Samet, The Design and Analysis of Spatial Data Structures. Addison-Wesley, 1990.
[24] G. Guennebaud, L. Barthe, and M. Paulin, "Real-Time Soft Shadow Mapping by Backprojection," Proc. Eurographics Symp. Rendering (EGSR), pp. 227-234, 2006.
[25] N.A. Carr, J. Hoberock, K. Crane, and J.C. Hart, "Fast gpu Ray Tracing of Dynamic Meshes Using Geometry Images," Proc. Graphics Interface Conf., pp. 203-209, 2006.
[26] A. Tevs, I. Ihrke, and H.-P. Seidel, "Maximum Mipmaps for Fast, Accurate, and Scalable Dynamic Height Field Rendering," Proc. Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, 2008.
[27] P. Gautron, J. Křivánek, K. Bouatouch, and S.N. Pattanaik, "Radiance Cache Splatting: A GPU-Friendly Global Illumination Algorithm," Proc. Eurographics Symp. Rendering, pp. 55-64, 2005.
[28] P. Shanmugam and O. Arikan, "Hardware Accelerated Ambient Occlusion Techniques on Gpus," Proc. Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, pp. 73-80, 2007.
[29] P.-P. Sloan, N. Govindaraju, D. Nowrouzezahrai, and J. Snyder, "Image-Based Proxy Accumulation for Real-Time Soft Global Illumination," Proc. Pacific Graphics Conf., pp. 97-105, 2007.
[30] M. Shah, J. Konttinen, and S. Pattanaik, "Caustics Mapping: An Image-Space Technique for Real-Time Caustics," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 272-280, Mar./Apr. 2007.
[31] C. Wyman and C. Dachsbacher, "Reducing Noise in Image-Space Caustics with Variable-Sized Splatting," J. Graphics Tools, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1-17, 2008.
[32] R. Herzog, V. Havran, S. Kinuwaki, K. Myszkowski, and H.-P. Seidel, "Global Illumination Using Photon Ray Splatting," Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 503-513, 2007.
[33] S. Rusinkiewicz and M. Levoy, "Qsplat: A Multiresolution Point Rendering System of Large Meshes," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 343-352, 2000.
[34] D. Laur and P. Hanrahan, "Hierarchical Splatting: A Progressive Refinement Algorithm for Volume Rendering," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 285-288, 1991.
[35] J. Lehtinen, M. Zwicker, E. Turquin, J. Kontkanen, F. Durand, F. Sillion, and T. Aila, "A Meshless Hierarchical Representation for Light Transport," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 27, no. 3, 2008.
[36] C. Wyman, "Hierarchical Caustic Maps," Proc. Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, 2008.
[37] G. Nichols and C. Wyman, "Multiresolution Splatting for Indirect Illumination," Proc. Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics and Games (I3D '09), 2009.
[38] P. Tole, F. Pellacini, B. Walter, and D. Greenberg, "Interactive Global Illumination in Dynamic Scenes," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 537-546, 2002.
[39] D.P. Mitchell, "Generating Antialiased Images at Low Sampling Densities," Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '87, pp. 65-72, 1987.
[40] R.B. Fisher, From Surfaces to Objects: Computer Vision and Three Dimensional Scene Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1989.
44 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool