The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.02 - March/April (2010 vol.16)
pp: 325-337
Yao-Yang Tsai , National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan
Wen-Chieh Lin , National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu
Kuangyou B. Cheng , National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan
Jehee Lee , Seoul National University, Seoul
Tong-Yee Lee , National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan
We present a physics-based approach to generate 3D biped character animation that can react to dynamical environments in real time. Our approach utilizes an inverted pendulum model to online adjust the desired motion trajectory from the input motion capture data. This online adjustment produces a physically plausible motion trajectory adapted to dynamic environments, which is then used as the desired motion for the motion controllers to track in dynamics simulation. Rather than using Proportional-Derivative controllers whose parameters usually cannot be easily set, our motion tracking adopts a velocity-driven method which computes joint torques based on the desired joint angular velocities. Physically correct full-body motion of the 3D character is computed in dynamics simulation using the computed torques and dynamical model of the character. Our experiments demonstrate that tracking motion capture data with real-time response animation can be achieved easily. In addition, physically plausible motion style editing, automatic motion transition, and motion adaptation to different limb sizes can also be generated without difficulty.
3D human motion, physics-based simulation, biped walk and balance, motion capture data.
Yao-Yang Tsai, Wen-Chieh Lin, Kuangyou B. Cheng, Jehee Lee, Tong-Yee Lee, "Real-Time Physics-Based 3D Biped Character Animation Using an Inverted Pendulum Model", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.16, no. 2, pp. 325-337, March/April 2010, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2009.76
[1] A.C. Fang and N.S. Pollard, “Efficient Synthesis of Physically Valid Human Motion,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 26, no. 3, pp.417-426, 2003.
[2] A. Safonova, J.K. Hodgins, and N.S. Pollard, “Synthesizing Physically Realistic Human Motion in Low-Dimensional, Behavior-Specific Spaces,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 514-521, 2004.
[3] C.K. Liu, A. Hertzmann, and Z. Popović, “Learning Physics-Based Motion Style with Nonlinear Inverse Optimization,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1071-1081, 2005.
[4] A. Sulejmanpašić and J. Popović, “Adaptation of Performed Ballistic Motion,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 165-179, 2005.
[5] J.K. Hodgins, W.L. Wooten, D.C. Brogan, and J.F. O'Brien, “Animating Human Athletics,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '95, pp.71-78, 1995.
[6] K. Yin, K. Loken, and M. van de Panne, “Simbicon: Simple Biped Locomotion Control,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '07, p. 105, 2007.
[7] K.W. Sok, M. Kim, and J. Lee, “Simulating Biped Behaviors from Human Motion Data,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '07, p. 107, 2007.
[8] J. Lee, J. Chai, P.S.A. Reitsma, J.K. Hodgins, and N.S. Pollard, “Interactive Control of Avatars Animated with Human Motion Data,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 491-500, 2002.
[9] L. Kovar, M. Gleicher, and F. Pighin, “Motion Graphs,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 473-482, 2002.
[10] Y. Li, T. Wang, and H.-Y. Shum, “Motion Texture: A Two-Level Statistical Model for Character Motion Synthesis,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 465-472, 2002.
[11] M. da Silva, Y. Abe, and J. Popović, “Interactive Simulation of Stylized Human Locomotion,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 82:1-82:10, 2008.
[12] M.H. Raibert, Legged Robots that Balance. Mass. Inst. of Tech nology, 1986.
[13] M.H. Raibert and J.K. Hodgins, “Animation of Dynamic Legged Locomotion,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '91, pp. 349-358, 1991.
[14] J.K. Hodgins, “Biped Gait Transitions,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Robotics and Automation, 1991.
[15] J.K. Hodgins and N.S. Pollard, “Adapting Simulated Behaviors for New Characters,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '97, pp. 153-162, Aug. 1997.
[16] S. Coros, P. Beaudoin, K. Yin, and M. van de Panne, “Synthesis of Constrained Walking Skills,” ACM Trans. Graphics (Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH Asia), vol. 27, no. 6, 2008.
[17] K. Yin, S. Coros, P. Beaudoin, and M. van de Panne, “Continuation Methods for Adapting Simulated Skills,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 27, no. 3, 2008.
[18] A. Witkin and M. Kass, “Spacetime Constraints,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '88, pp. 159-168, 1988.
[19] M.F. Cohen, “Interactive Spacetime Control for Animation,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '92, pp. 293-302, 1992.
[20] Z. Popović and A. Witkin, “Physically Based Motion Transformation,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '99, pp. 11-20, Aug. 1999.
[21] V.B. Zordan and J.K. Hodgins, “Motion Capture-Driven Simulations that Hit and React,” Proc. Symp. Computer Animation (SCA), pp. 89-96, 2002.
[22] Y. Abe, M. da Silva, and J. Popović, “Multiobjective Control with Frictional Contacts,” Proc. Symp. Computer Animation (SCA), pp.249-258, 2007.
[23] H. Miura and I. Shimoyama, “Dynamic Walk of a Biped,” Int'l J. Robotics Research, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 60-74, 1984.
[24] S. Kitamura, Y. Kurematsu, and M. Iwata, “Motion Generation of a Biped Locomotive Robot Using an Inverted Pendulum Model and Neural Networks,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Decision and Control, vol. 6, pp.3308-3312, 1990.
[25] S. Kajita, F. Kanehiro, K. Kaneko, K. Yokoi, and H. Hirukawa, “The 3d Linear Inverted Pendulum Mode: A Simple Modeling for a Bipedwalking Pattern Generation,” Proc. IEEE/RSJ Int'l Conf. Intelligent Robots and Systems, vol. 1, pp. 239-246, 2001.
[26] A.D. Kuo, “Stabilization of Lateral Motion in Passive Dynamic Walking,” Int'l J. Robotics Research, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 917-930, 1999.
[27] M. Srinivasan and A. Ruina, “Computer Optimization of a Minimal Biped Model Discovers Walking and Running,” Nature, vol. 439, no. 7072, pp. 72-75, Jan. 2006.
[28] A.D. Kuo, J.M. Donelan, and A. Ruina, “Energetic Consequences of Walking Like an Inverted Pendulum: Step-to-Step Transitions,” Exercise and Sport Sciences Rev., vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 88-97, 2005.
[29] M. Brubaker, D.J. Fleet, and A. Hertzmann, “Physics-Based Person Tracking Using Simplified Lower-Body Dynamics,” Proc. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 1-8, 2007.
[30] J.E. Pratt and R. Tedrake, “Velocity-Based Stability Margins for Fast Bipedal Walking,” Proc. First Ruperto Carola Symp. Fast Motions in Biomechanics and Robotics: Optimization and Feedback Control, pp. 299-324, 2005.
[31] M. Abdallah and A. Goswami, “A Biomechanically Motivated Two-Phase Strategy for Biped Upright Balance Control,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Robotics and Automation, pp. 1996-2001, 2005.
[32] M. van de Panne, E. Fiume, and Z.G. Vranesic, “Physically-Based Modeling and Control of Turning,” Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing: Graphical Models and Image Processing, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 507-521, 1993.
[33] P. Faloutsos, M. van de Panne, and D. Terzopoulos, “Composable Controllers for Physics-Based Character Animation,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '01, pp. 251-260, 2001.
[34] A. Bruderlin and T.W. Calvert, “Goal-Directed, Dynamic Animation of Human Walking,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '89, pp. 233-242, 1989.
[35] T. Komura, H. Leung, S. Kudoh, and J. Kuffner, “Animating Reactive Motions for Biped Locomotion,” Proc. Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST '04), pp. 32-40, 2004.
[36] G. Harry, Anthropometry and Mass Distribution for Human Analogues. Volume I: Military Male Aviator. Defense Technical Information Center, Mar. 1988.
[37] J. Lee and S.Y. Shin, “A Hierarchical Approach to Interactive Motion Editing for Human-Like Figures,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '99, pp.39-48, 1999.
[38] M. Cline and D. Pai, “Post-Stabilization for Rigid Body Simulation with Contact and Constraints,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Robotics and Automation, vol. 3, pp. 3744-3751, 2003.
[39] D. Baraff, “Fast Contact Force Computation for Nonpenetrating Rigid Bodies,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '94, pp. 23-34, 1994.
[40] T. Flash and N. Hogan, “The Coordination of Arm Movements: An Experimentally Confirmed Mathematical Model,” J.Neuroscience, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 1688-1703, 1985.
[41] J. Lee and K.H. Lee, “Precomputing Avatar Behavior from Human Motion Data,” Proc. Symp. Computer Animation (SCA), pp. 79-87, 2004.
[42] J. McCann and N. Pollard, “Responsive Characters from Motion Fragments,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 6:1-6:7, 2007.
[43] A. Treuille, Y. Lee, and Z. Popović, “Near-Optimal Character Animation with Continuous Control,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 7:1-7:7, 2007.
[44] M. da Silva, Y. Abe, and J. Popović, “Simulation of Human Motion Data Using Short-Horizon Model-Predictive Control,” Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 371-380, 2008.
[45] Y. Ye and C.K. Liu, “Animating Responsive Characters with Dynamic Constraints in Near-Unactuated Coordinates,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1-5, 2008.
37 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool