The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.06 - November/December (2009 vol.15)
pp: 1049-1056
Taowei David Wang , Human-Computer Interaction Lab and Dept. of Computer Science, University of Maryland at College Park
Catherine Plaisant , Human-Computer Interaction Lab and Dept. of Computer Science, University of Maryland at College Park
Ben Shneiderman , Human-Computer Interaction Lab and Dept. of Computer Science, University of Maryland at College Park
Neil Spring , Dept. of Computer Science, University of Maryland at College Park
David Roseman , ER One Institute, Washington Hospital Center, Medstar Health
Greg Marchand , ER One Institute, Washington Hospital Center, Medstar Health
Vikramjit Mukherjee , ER One Institute, Washington Hospital Center, Medstar Health
Mark Smith , ER One Institute, Washington Hospital Center, Medstar Health
ABSTRACT
When analyzing thousands of event histories, analysts often want to see the events as an aggregate to detect insights and generate new hypotheses about the data. An analysis tool must emphasize both the prevalence and the temporal ordering of these events. Additionally, the analysis tool must also support flexible comparisons to allow analysts to gather visual evidence. In a previsous work, we introduced align, rank, and filter (ARF) to accentuate temporal ordering. In this paper, we present temporal summaries, an interactive visualization technique that highlights the prevalence of event occurrences. Temporal summaries dynamically aggregate events in multiple granularities (year, month, week, day, hour, etc.) for the purpose of spotting trends over time and comparing several groups of records. They provide affordances for analysts to perform temporal range filters. We demonstrate the applicability of this approach in two extensive case studies with analysts who applied temporal summaries to search, filter, and look for patterns in electronic health records and academic records.
INDEX TERMS
Information Visualization, Interaction design, Human-computer interaction, temporal categorical data visualization
CITATION
Taowei David Wang, Catherine Plaisant, Ben Shneiderman, Neil Spring, David Roseman, Greg Marchand, Vikramjit Mukherjee, Mark Smith, "Temporal Summaries: Supporting Temporal Categorical Searching, Aggregation and Comparison", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.15, no. 6, pp. 1049-1056, November/December 2009, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2009.187
REFERENCES
[1] L. Chittaro, C. Combi, and G. Trapasso, "Data Mining on Temporal Data: A Visual Approach and its Clinical Application to Hemodialysis," Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, 14, 6, 591-620, 2003.
[2] M. Dubinko, R. Kumar, J. Magnani, J. Novak, P. Raghavan, A. Tomkins, "Visualizing Tags Over Time", ACM Transactions on the Web, 1, 2, 2007.
[3] J. Fails, A. Karlson, L. Shahamat, and B. Shneiderman, "A Visual Interface for Multivariate Temporal Data: Finding Patterns of Events Over Time", Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Visual Analytics Science and Technology, 2006.
[4] A. Faiola and S. Hillier, "Multivariate Relational Visualization of Complex Clinical Datasets in a Critical Care Setting: A Data Visualization Interactive Prototype," Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Visualization, 460-468, 2006.
[5] S. Havre, E. Hetzler, P. Whitney, and L. Nowell, "ThemeRiver: Visualizing Thematic Changes in Large Document Collections", IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 8, 1, 9-20, 2002.
[6] H. Hochheiser and B. Shneiderman, "Dynamic Query Tools for Time Series Data Sets, Timebox Widgets for Interactive Exploration," Information Visualization, 3, 1, 1-18, 2004.
[7] H. Lam, D. Russell, D. Tang, and T. Munzner, "Session Viewer: Visual Exploratory Analysis of Web Session Logs," Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Visual Analyitcs Science and Technology, 147-154, 2007.
[8] J. Lee, "Exploring Global Terrorism Data: A Web-based Visualization of Temporal Data," ACM Crossroads, 15, 2, 7-16, 2008.
[9] J. Lin, E. Keogh, S. Lonardi, J.P. Lankford, and D.M. Nystrom, "VizTree: A Tool For Visually Mining and Monitoring Massive Time Series Databases," Proceedings of the International Conference on Very Large Data Bases '04, 30, 1269-1272, 2004.
[10] Microsoft Amalga, http://www.microsoft.comamalga/
[11] S.N. Murphy, M. Mendis, K. Hackett, R. Kuttan, W. Pan, L. Phillips, V. Gainer, D. Berkowicz, J. Glaser, I. Kohane, and H. Chueh, "Architecture of the Open-source Clinical Research Chart from Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside," Proceedings of the American Medical Information Association Annual Symposium '07, 548-552, 2007.
[12] J. Ong DataMontage, http://www.stottlerhenke.comdatamontage, 2006
[13] D. Phan, J. Gerth, M. Lee, A. Paepcke, and T. Winograd, "Visual Analysis of Network Flow Data with Timelines and Event Plots," Proceedings of the workshop on Visualization for Computer Security 08, 85-99, 2008.
[14] C. Plaisant, S. Lam, B. Shneiderman, M. Smith, D. Roseman, G. Marchand, M. Gillam, C. Feied, J. Handler, and H. Rappaport, "Searching Electronic Health Records for Temporal Patterns in Patient Histories: A Case Study with Microsoft Amalga," Proceedings of the American Medical Information Association Annual Fall Symposium '08, 2008.
[15] C. Plaisant, R. Mushlin, A. Snyder, J. Li, D. Heller, and B. Shneiderman, "LifeLines: Using Visualization to Enhance Navigation and Analysis of Patient Records", Proceedings of the American Medical Information Association Annual Fall Symposium '98, 76-80, 1998.
[16] S.M. Powsner and E.R. Tufte, "Graphical Summary of Patient Status," The Lancet, 344, 8919, 386-389.
[17] R. Ribler, A. Mathur, and M. Abrams, "Visualizing and Modeling Categorical Time Series Data," In Symposium on Visualizing Time-Varying Data, 3-19, 1995.
[18] M. Smythe, J.M. Koerber, and M. Fitzgerald, J.C. Mattson, "Financial Impact of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia," Chest Journal, 134, 3, 568-573, 2008.
[19] M. Suntinger, J. Schiefer, H. Obweger, and M.E. Groller, "The Event Tunnel: Interactive Visualization of Complex Event Streams for Business process Pattern analysis," Proceedings of IEEE Pacific Visualization Symposium '08, 111-118, 2008.
[20] J. Tukey, Exploratory Data Analysis, Addison-Wesley, 1977.
[21] T.D. Wang, C. Plaisant, A.J. Quinn, R. Stanchak, S. Murphy, and S. Shneiderman, "Aligning Temporal Data by Sentinel Events: Discovering Patterns in Electronic Health Records," Proceedings of SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 457-466, 2008.
[22] M. Wattenberg, "Baby Names, Visualization, and Social Data Analysis", Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization '05, 1-7, 2005.
17 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool