The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.05 - September/October (2009 vol.15)
pp: 789-801
Nikunj Raghuvanshi , University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill
Rahul Narain , University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill
Ming C. Lin , University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill
ABSTRACT
Accurate sound rendering can add significant realism to complement visual display in interactive applications, as well as facilitate acoustic predictions for many engineering applications, like accurate acoustic analysis for architectural design [CHECK END OF SENTENCE]. Numerical simulation can provide this realism most naturally by modeling the underlying physics of wave propagation. However, wave simulation has traditionally posed a tough computational challenge. In this paper, we present a technique which relies on an adaptive rectangular decomposition of 3D scenes to enable efficient and accurate simulation of sound propagation in complex virtual environments. It exploits the known analytical solution of the Wave Equation in rectangular domains, and utilizes an efficient implementation of the Discrete Cosine Transform on Graphics Processors (GPU) to achieve at least a 100-fold performance gain compared to a standard Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) implementation with comparable accuracy, while also being 10-fold more memory efficient. Consequently, we are able to perform accurate numerical acoustic simulation on large, complex scenes in the kilohertz range. To the best of our knowledge, it was not previously possible to perform such simulations on a desktop computer. Our work thus enables acoustic analysis on large scenes and auditory display for complex virtual environments on commodity hardware.
INDEX TERMS
Sound propagation, computational acoustics, auralization, FDTD.
CITATION
Nikunj Raghuvanshi, Rahul Narain, Ming C. Lin, "Efficient and Accurate Sound Propagation Using Adaptive Rectangular Decomposition", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.15, no. 5, pp. 789-801, September/October 2009, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2009.28
REFERENCES
[1] Domain Decomposition Method, http://link.aip.org/link/?JBO/12/030501/ 1http:/www.ddm.org, 2009.
[2] Soundscapes in Half-Life 2, Valve Corporation, http://developer. valvesoftware.com/wiki Soundscapes, 2008.
[3] J.B. Allen and D.A. Berkley, “Image Method for Efficiently Simulating Small-Room Acoustics,” J. Acoustical Soc. Am., vol. 65, no. 4, pp.943-950, 1979.
[4] F. Antonacci, M. Foco, A. Sarti, and S. Tubaro, “Real Time Modeling of Acoustic Propagation in Complex Environments,” Proc. Seventh Int'l Conf. Digital Audio Effects, pp.274-279, 2004.
[5] M. Bertram, E. Deines, J. Mohring, J. Jegorovs, and H. Hagen, “Phonon Tracing for Auralization and Visualization of Sound,” Proc. IEEE Visualization Conf., 2005.
[6] N. Bonneel, G. Drettakis, N. Tsingos, I.V. Delmon, and D. James, “Fast Modal Sounds with Scalable Frequency-Domain Synthesis,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '08, Aug. 2008.
[7] D. Botteldooren, “Acoustical Finite-Difference Time-Domain Simulation in a Quasi-Cartesian Grid,” J. Acoustical Soc. Am., vol. 95, no. 5, pp.2313-2319, 1994.
[8] D. Botteldooren, “Finite-Difference Time-Domain Simulation of Low-Frequency Room Acoustic Problems,” J. Acoustical Soc. Am., vol. 98, pp.3302-3308, Dec. 1995.
[9] J.P. Boyd, Chebyshev and Fourier Spectral Methods, second revised ed. Dover Publications, Dec. 2001.
[10] P.T. Calamia and P.U. Svensson, “Fast Time-Domain Edge-Diffraction Calculations for Interactive Acoustic Simulations,” EURASIP J. Advances in Signal Processing, 2007.
[11] C.A. de Moura, “Parallel Algorithms for Differential Equations,” technical report, LMGC, Université de Montpellier II, 1994.
[12] E. Deines, F. Michel, M. Bertram, H. Hagen, and G. Nielson, “Visualizing the Phonon Map,” Proc. Eurographics/IEEE Symp. Visualization (EUROVIS), 2006.
[13] Y. Dobashi, T. Yamamoto, and T. Nishita, “Real-Time Rendering of Aerodynamic Sound Using Sound Textures Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 22, no. 3, pp.732-740, July 2003.
[14] Durlach, “Virtual Reality Scientific and Technological Challenges,” technical report, Nat'l Research Council, 1995.
[15] M. Frigo and S.G. Johnson, “The Design and Implementation of fftw3,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 93, no. 2, pp.216-231, 2005.
[16] T. Funkhouser, N. Tsingos, I. Carlbom, G. Elko, M. Sondhi, J.E. West, G. Pingali, P. Min, and A. Ngan, “A Beam Tracing Method for Interactive Architectural Acoustics,” J. Acoustical Soc. Am., vol. 115, no. 2, pp.739-756, 2004.
[17] N.K. Govindaraju, B. Lloyd, Y. Dotsenko, B. Smith, and J. Manferdelli, “High Performance Discrete Fourier Transforms on Graphics Processors,” Proc. ACM/IEEE Conf. Supercomputing (SC'08), pp.1-12, 2008.
[18] M. Hodgson and E.M. Nosal, “Experimental Evaluation of Radiosity for Room Sound-Field Prediction,” J. Acoustical Soc. Am., vol. 120, no. 2, pp.808-819, 2006.
[19] D.L. James, J. Barbic, and D.K. Pai, “Precomputed Acoustic Transfer: Output-Sensitive, Accurate Sound Generation for Geometrically Complex Vibration Sources,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 25, no. 3, pp.987-995, July 2006.
[20] M. Karjalainen and C. Erkut, “Digital Waveguides Versus Finite Difference Structures: Equivalence and Mixed Modeling,” EURASIP J. Appl. Signal Processing, vol. 2004, no. 1, pp.978-989, Jan. 2004.
[21] L.E. Kinsler, A.R. Frey, A.B. Coppens, and J.V. Sanders, Fundamentals of Acoustics. Wiley, Dec. 1999.
[22] M. Kleiner, B.-I. Dalenbäck, and P. Svensson, “Auralization—An Overview,” J. Audio Eng. Soc., vol. 41, pp.861-875, 1993.
[23] U. Krockstadt, “Calculating the Acoustical Room Response by the Use of a Ray Tracing Technique,” J. Sound Vibration, 1968.
[24] H. Kuttruff, Room Acoustics. Taylor & Francis, Oct. 2000.
[25] Q.H. Liu, “The PSTD Algorithm: A Time-Domain Method Combining the Pseudospectral Technique and Perfectly Matched Layers,” J. Acoustical Soc. Am., vol. 101, no. 5, p.3182, 1997.
[26] T. Lokki, “Physically-Based Auralization,” PhD thesis, Helsinki Univ. of Tech nology, 2002.
[27] M. Monks, B.M. Oh, and J. Dorsey, “Audioptimization: Goal-Based Acoustic Design,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 20, no. 3, pp.76-90, May 2000.
[28] D. Murphy, A. Kelloniemi, J. Mullen, and S. Shelley, “Acoustic Modeling Using the Digital Waveguide Mesh,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 24, no. 2, pp.55-66, 2007.
[29] J.F. O'Brien, C. Shen, and C.M. Gatchalian, “Synthesizing Sounds From Rigid-Body Simulations,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symp. Computer Animation, pp.175-181, 2002.
[30] R. Petrausch and S. Rabenstein, “Simulation of Room Acoustics Via Block-Based Physical Modeling with the Functional Transformation Method,” Proc. IEEE Workshop Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics, pp.195-198, Oct. 2005.
[31] A. Quarteroni and A. Valli, Domain Decomposition Methods for Partial Differential Equations. Oxford Univ. Press, 1999.
[32] R. Rabenstein, S. Petrausch, A. Sarti, G. De Sanctis, C. Erkut, and M. Karjalainen, “Block-Based Physical Modeling For Digital Sound Synthesis,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 24, no. 2, pp.42-54, 2007.
[33] N. Raghuvanshi and M.C. Lin, “Interactive Sound Synthesis For Large Scale Environments,” Proc. Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics and Games (SI3D '06), pp.101-108, 2006.
[34] Y.S. Rickard, N.K. Georgieva, and W.-P. Huang, “Application and Optimization of PML Abc For the 3D Wave Equation in the Time Domain,” IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, vol. 51, no. 2, pp.286-295, 2003.
[35] J.H. Rindel, “The Use of Computer Modeling in Room Acoustics.”
[36] H. Sabine, “Room Acoustics,” Trans. IRE Professional Group on Audio, vol. 1, no. 4, pp.4-12, 1953.
[37] S. Sakamoto, T. Seimiya, and H. Tachibana, “Visualization of Sound Reflection and Diffraction Using Finite Difference Time Domain Method,” Acoustical Science and Technology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp.34-39, 2002.
[38] S. Sakamoto, A. Ushiyama, and H. Nagatomo, “Numerical Analysis of Sound Propagation in Rooms Using the Finite Difference Time Domain Method,” J. Acoustical Soc. Am., vol. 120, no. 5, p.3008, 2006.
[39] S. Sakamoto, T. Yokota, and H. Tachibana, “Numerical Sound Field Analysis in Halls Using the Finite Difference Time Domain Method,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Room Acoustics: Design and Science (RADS), 2004.
[40] L. Savioja, “Modeling Techniques for Virtual Acoustics,” Doctoral thesis, Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Telecomm. Software and Multimedia Laboratory, Report TML-A3, 1999.
[41] K.L. Shlager and J.B. Schneider, “A Selective Survey of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Literature,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 37, no. 4, pp.39-57, 1995.
[42] S. Siltanen, “Geometry Reduction in Room Acoustics Modeling.” master's thesis, Helsinki Univ. of Tech nology, 2005.
[43] A. Taflove and S.C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, third ed. Artech House Publishers, June 2005.
[44] T. Takala and J. Hahn, “Sound Rendering,” Computer Graphics, vol. 26, no. 2, pp.211-220, July 1992.
[45] A. Toselli and O. Widlund, Domain Decomposition Methods, first ed. Springer, Nov. 2004.
[46] N. Tsingos, “Simulating High Quality Dynamic Virtual Sound Fields for Interactive Graphics Applications,” PhD thesis, Univ. Joseph Fourier Grenoble I, Dec. 1998.
[47] N. Tsingos, C. Dachsbacher, S. Lefebvre, and M. Dellepiane, “Instant Sound Scattering,“ Rendering Techniques (Proc. Eurographics Symp. Rendering), 2007.
[48] N. Tsingos, T. Funkhouser, A. Ngan, and I. Carlbom, “Modeling Acoustics in Virtual Environments Using the Uniform Theory of Diffraction,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '01, Aug. 2001.
[49] K. vanden Doel, P.G. Kry, and D.K. Pai, “Foleyautomatic: Physically-Based Sound Effects for Interactive Simulation and Animation,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '01, pp.537-544, 2001.
[50] S. VanDuyne and J.O. Smith, “The 2D Digital Waveguide Mesh,” Proc. IEEE Workshop Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics, pp.177-180, 1993.
[51] K. Yee, “Numerical Solution of Initial Boundary Value Problems Involving Maxwell's Equations in Isotropic Media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, vol. 14, no. 3, pp.302-307, 1966.
19 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool