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Enhancing Realism of Wet Surfaces in Temporal Bone Surgical Simulation
September/October 2009 (vol. 15 no. 5)
pp. 747-758
Thomas Kerwin, The Ohio State University and the Ohio Supercomputer Center, Columbus
Han-Wei Shen, The Ohio State University, Columbus
Don Stredney, The Ohio State University and the Ohio Supercomputer Center, Columbus
We present techniques to improve visual realism in an interactive surgical simulation application: a mastoidectomy simulator that offers a training environment for medical residents as a complement to using a cadaver. As well as displaying the mastoid bone through volume rendering, the simulation allows users to experience haptic feedback and appropriate sound cues while controlling a virtual bone drill and suction/irrigation device. The techniques employed to improve realism consist of a fluid simulator and a shading model. The former allows for deformable boundaries based on volumetric bone data, while the latter gives a wet look to the rendered bone to emulate more closely the appearance of the bone in a surgical environment. The fluid rendering includes bleeding effects, meniscus rendering, and refraction. We incorporate a planar computational fluid dynamics simulation into our three-dimensional rendering to effect realistic blood diffusion. Maintaining real-time performance while drilling away bone in the simulation is critical for engagement with the system.

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Index Terms:
Health, virtual reality, volume rendering, blood.
Thomas Kerwin, Han-Wei Shen, Don Stredney, "Enhancing Realism of Wet Surfaces in Temporal Bone Surgical Simulation," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 747-758, Sept.-Oct. 2009, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2009.31
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