CSDL Home IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics 2009 vol.15 Issue No.02 - March/April

Subscribe

Issue No.02 - March/April (2009 vol.15)

pp: 262-273

Saif Ali , AMD, Santa Clara

Jieping Ye , Arizona State University, Tempe

Anshuman Razdan , Arizona State University, Tempe

Peter Wonka , Arizona State University, Tempe

DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TVCG.2008.98

ABSTRACT

We describe an approach to render massive urban models. To prevent a memory transfer bottleneck we propose to render the models from a compressed representation directly. Our solution is based on rendering crude building outlines as polygons and generating details by ray-tracing displacement maps in the fragment shader. We demonstrate how to compress a displacement map so that a decompression algorithm can selectively and quickly access individual entries in a fragment shader. Our prototype implementation shows how a massive urban model can be compressed by a factor of $85$ and outperform a basic geometry-based renderer by a factor of $50$ to $100$ in rendering speed.

INDEX TERMS

Display algorithms, Raytracing, Displacement Mapping, GPU Raytracing

CITATION

Saif Ali, Jieping Ye, Anshuman Razdan, Peter Wonka, "Compressed Facade Displacement Maps",

*IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics*, vol.15, no. 2, pp. 262-273, March/April 2009, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2008.98REFERENCES

- [2] W. Donnelly, “Per-Pixel Displacement Mapping with Distance Functions,”
GPU Gems 2, 2005.- [3] J. Kautz and M.D. McCool, “Interactive Rendering with Arbitrary BRDFs Using Separable Approximations,”
Proc. Eurographics Workshop Rendering Techniques, 253-253, 1999.- [4] L. Borgeat, G. Godin, F. Blais, P. Massicotte, and C. Lahanier, “GoLD: Interactive Display of Huge Colored and Textured Models,”
ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 869-877, July 2005.- [5] E. Gobbetti and F. Marton, “Far Voxels: A Multiresolution Framework for interactive Rendering of Huge Complex 3D Models on Commodity Graphics Platforms,”
ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 878-885, July 2005.- [6] P. Lindstrom, D. Koller, W. Ribarsky, L.F. Hodges, N. Faust, and G.A. Turner, “Real-Time, Continuous Level of Detail Rendering of Height Fields,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '96, pp. 109-118, 1996.- [7] F. Losasso and H. Hoppe, “Geometry Clipmaps: Terrain Rendering Using Nested Regular Grids,”
ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 769-776, Aug. 2004.- [9] F. Musgrave, “Grid Tracing: Fast Ray Tracing for Height Fields,” technical report, 1988.
- [12] B.E. Smits, P. Shirley, and M.M. Stark, “Direct Ray Tracing of Displacement Mapped Triangles,”
Proc. Eurographics Workshop Rendering Techniques, pp. 307-318, 2000.- [17] K. Moule and M.D. McCool, “Efficient Bounded Adaptive Tessellation of Displacement Maps,”
Proc. Conf. Graphics Interface (GI '02), pp. 171-180, May 2002.- [18] J. Hirche, A. Ehlert, S. Guthe, and M. Doggett, “Hardware Accelerated Per-Pixel Displacement Mapping,”
Proc. Conf. Graphics Interface (GI '04), pp. 153-158, 2004.- [20] E.A. Risser, M.A. Shah, and S. Pattanaik, “Interval Mapping,” technical report, School of Eng. and Computer Science, Univ. of Central Florida, 2006.
- [21] L. Baboud and X. Décoret, “Rendering Geometry with Relief Textures,”
Proc. Conf. Graphics Interface (GI '06), pp. 195-201, 2006.- [22] J. Dummer, “Cone Step Mapping: An Iterative Ray-Heightfield Intersection Algorithm,” technical report, http://www.lonesock. net/filesConeStepMapping.pdf , 2006.
- [24] N. Tatarchuk, “Dynamic Parallax Occlusion Mapping with Approximate Soft Shadows,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics and Games (I3D '06), pp. 63-69, 2006.- [25] G.H. Golub and C.F. Van Loan,
Matrix Computations, third ed. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1996.- [26] I.T. Jolliffe,
Principal Component Analysis. Springer, 1986.- [27] A. Fournier, “Separating Reflection Functions for Linear Radiosity,”
Proc. Eurographics Workshop Rendering Techniques, pp. 296-305, 1995.- [28] R. Wang, J. Tran, and D.P. Luebke, “All-Frequency Relighting of Non-Diffuse Objects Using Separable BRDF Approximation,”
Proc. 15th Eurographics Workshop Rendering Techniques, pp. 345-354, 2004.- [32] J. Lehtinen and J. Kautz, “Matrix Radiance Transfer,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics (I3D '03), pp. 59-64, Apr. 2003.- [33] L. Latta and A. Kolb, “Homomorphic Factorization of BRDF-Based Lighting Computation,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '02, pp. 509-516, 2002.- [34] M.D. McCool, J. Ang, and A. Ahmad, “Homomorphic Factorization of BRDFs for High-Performance Rendering,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '01, pp. 171-178, 2001.- [36] D.D. Lee and H.S. Seung,
Algorithms for Non-Negative Matrix Factorization, pp. 556-562. MIT Press, 2000.- [42] M. Sattler, R. Sarlette, and R. Klein, “Simple and Efficient Compression of Animation Sequences,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symp. Computer Animation (SCA '05), pp. 209-218, 2005.- [44] J. Ricard, J. Royan, and O. Aubault, “From Photographs to Procedural Facade Models,”
ACM SIGGRAPH '07, p. 75, 2007.- [46] G. Schaufler, J. Dorsey, X. Decoret, and F. Sillion, “Conservative Volumetric Visibility with Occluder Fusion,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '00, pp. 229-238, 2000.- [47] Y.I.H. Parish and P. Müller, “Procedural Modeling of Cities,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '01, E. Fiume, ed., pp. 301-308, 2001.- [48] W.H. Press, W.T. Vetterling, S.A. Teukolsky, and B.P. Flannery,
Numerical Recipes in C++: The Art of Scientific Computing, 2002.- [49] M. Koyutürk and A. Grama, “PROXIMUS: A Framework for Analyzing Very High Dimensional Discrete-Attributed Datasets,”
Proc. ACM SIGKDD '03, pp. 147-156, 2003.- [51] M.R. Garey and D.S. Johnson,
Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness. W.H. Freeman, 1979.- [53] C. Sturtivant,
Finding the Right One, http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1141911.1141971http:/ /blog.lib.umn.edu/sturt001/sturtivant/ 2006/12finding_the_right_one.html , 2008. |