The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.02 - March/April (2009 vol.15)
pp: 221-234
Ross Maciejewski , Purdue University, West Lafayette
Min Chen , University of Wales Swansea, Swansea
Benjamin Mora , University of Wales Swansea, Swansea
ABSTRACT
The availability of commodity volumetric displays provides ordinary users with a new means of visualizing 3D data. Many of these displays are in the class of isotropically emissive light devices, which are designed to directly illumi-nate voxels in a 3D frame buffer, producing X-ray-like visu-alizations. While this technology can offer intuitive insight into a 3D object, the visualizations are perceptually different from what a computer graphics or visualization system would render on a 2D screen. This paper formalizes rendering on isotropically emissive displays and introduces a novel technique that emulates traditional rendering effects on isotropically emissive volumetric displays, delivering results that are much closer to what is traditionally rendered on regular 2D screens. Such a technique can significantly broaden the capa-bility and usage of isotropically emissive volumetric displays. Our method takes a 3D dataset or object as the input, creates an intermediate light field, and outputs a special 3D volume dataset called a lumi-volume. This lumi-volume encodes approximated rendering effects in a form suitable for display with accumulative integrals along unobtrusive rays. When a lumi-volume is fed directly into an isotropically emissive volumetric display, it creates a 3D visualization with [...]
INDEX TERMS
Picture/Image Generation, Raster display devices, Viewing algorithms, Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism
CITATION
Ross Maciejewski, Min Chen, Benjamin Mora, "Visualization and Computer Graphics on Isotropically Emissive Volumetric Displays", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.15, no. 2, pp. 221-234, March/April 2009, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2008.99
REFERENCES
[1] E.H. Adelson and J.R. Bergen, “The Plenoptic Function and the Elements of Early Vision,” Computation Models of Visual Processing, M. Landy and J.A. Movshon, eds., MIT Press, 1991.
[2] E.H. Adelson and J.Y.A. Wang, “Single Lens Stereo with a Plenoptic Camera,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 99-106, Feb. 1992.
[3] L. Ahrenberg, I. Ihrke, and M.A. Magnor, “Volumetric Reconstruction, Compression and Rendering of Natural Phenomena,” Proc. Fourth Int'l Workshop Volume Graphics, pp. 83-90, 2005.
[4] B.G. Blundell and A.J. Schwarz, Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems. John Wiley & Sons, 2000.
[5] B.G. Blundell and A.J. Schwarz, “The Classification of Volumetric Display Systems: Characteristics and Predictability of the Image Space,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 66-75, Jan. 2002.
[6] B. Cabral, N. Cam, and J. Foran, “Accelerated Volume Rendering and Tomographic Reconstruction Using Texture Mapping Hardware,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Volume Visualization, pp. 91-98, 1994.
[7] J.-X. Chai, S.-C. Chan, H.-Y. Shum, and X. Tong, “Plenoptic Sampling,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '00, pp. 307-318, 2000.
[8] K. Chidlow and T. Moller, “Rapid Emission Tomography Reconstruction,” Proc. Third Int'l Workshop Volume Graphics, pp. 15-26, July 2003.
[9] O.S. Cossairt, J. Napoli, S.L. Hill, R.K. Dorval, and G.E. Favalora, “Occlusion-Capable Multiview Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display,” Applied Optics, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1244-1250, 2007.
[10] F. Dachille, K. Mueller, and A.E. Kaufman, “Volumetric Backprojection,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Volume Visualization and Graphics, pp. 109-117, Oct. 2000.
[11] J.S. De Bonet and P. Viola, “Roxels: Responsibility Weighted 3D Volume Reconstruction,” Proc. Seventh Int'l Conf. Computer Vision (ICCV '99), pp. 418-425, 1999.
[12] A. Dempster, N. Laird, and D. Rubin, “Maximum Likelihood from in Complete Data via the EM Algorithm,” J. Royal Statistical Soc., Series B, vol. 34, pp. 1-38, 1977.
[13] N.A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D Displays,” Computer, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 31-36, Aug. 2005.
[14] P. Eisert, E. Steinbach, and B. Girod, “3D Shape Reconstruction from Light Fields Using Voxel Back-Projection,” Proc. Vision, Modeling, and Visualization Workshop (VMV '99), pp. 67-74, Nov. 1999.
[15] G.E. Favalora, “Volumetric 3D Displays and Application Infrastructure,” Computer, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 37-44, Aug. 2005.
[16] L.A. Feldkamp, L.C. Davis, and J.W. Kress, “Practical Cone-Beam Algorithm,” J. Optical Soc. of America, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 612-619, June 1984.
[17] D.T. Gering and M.W. Wells III, “Object Modeling Using Tomography and Photography,” Proc. IEEE Workshop Multi-View Modeling and Analysis of Visual Scenes (MVIEW '99), pp. 11-18, June 1999.
[18] R. Gordon, R. Bender, and G.T. Herman, “Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques (ART) for Three Dimensional Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Photography,” J. Theoretic Biology, vol. 29, pp.471-481, 1970.
[19] S.J. Gortler, R. Grzeszczuk, R. Szeliski, and M.F. Cohen, “The Lumigraph,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '06, pp. 43-54, 2006.
[20] T. Grossman, D. Wigdor, and R. Balakrishnan, “Multi-Finger Gestural Interaction with 3D Volumetric Displays,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 24, no. 3, p. 931, 2005.
[21] S.W. Hasinoff and K.N. Kutulakos, “Photo-Consistent 3D Fire by Flamesheet Decomposition,” Proc. Ninth Int'l Conf. Computer Vision (ICCV '03), pp. 1184-1191, 2003.
[22] H.M. Hudson and R. Larkin, “Accelerated Image Reconstruction Using Ordered Subsets of Projection Data,” IEEE Trans. Medical Imaging, pp. 100-108, 1994.
[23] I. Ihrke and M.A. Magnor, “Image-Based Tomographic Reconstruction of Flames,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symp. Computer Animation (SCA '04), pp. 367-375, June 2004.
[24] I. Ihrke and M.A. Magnor, “Adaptive Grid Optical Tomography,” Graphical Models, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 484-495, 2006.
[25] A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an Interactive 360 Degrees Light Field Display,” ACM Trans. Graphics (Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '07), vol. 26, no. 3, 2006.
[26] M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light Field Rendering,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '96, pp. 31-42, 2006.
[27] Z. Lin and H.-Y. Shum, “On the Number of Samples Needed in Light Field Rendering with Constant-Depth Assumption,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR '00), pp. 588-597, 2000.
[28] W. Matusik and H. Pfister, “3D TV: A Scalable System for Real-Time Acquisition, Transmission and Autostereoscopic Display of Dynamic Scenes,” ACM Trans. Graphics (Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '04), vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 814-824, 2004.
[29] K. Mueller and R. Yagel, “Rapid 3D Cone-Beam Reconstruction with the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART) Using 2D Texture Mapping Hardware,” IEEE Trans. Medical Imaging, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 1227-1237, 2000.
[30] R. Otsuka, T. Hoshino, and Y. Horry, “Transpost: A Novel Approach to the Display and Transmission of 360 Degrees-Viewable 3D Solid Images,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 178-185, Mar. 2006.
[31] S.M. Seitz and C.R. Dyer, “Photorealistic Scene Reconstruction by Voxel Coloring,” Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 151-173, 1999.
[32] L.A. Shepp and Y. Vardi, “Maximum Likelihood Restoration for Emission Tomography,” IEEE Trans. Medical Imaging, vol. 1, pp. 113-122, 1982.
[33] C. Slinger, C. Cameron, and M. Stanley, “Computer-Generated Holography as a Generic Display Technology,” Computer, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 46-53, Aug. 2005.
[34] B. Trifonov, D. Bradley, and W. Heidrich, “Tomographic Reconstruction of Transparent Objects,” Proc. 17th Eurographics Symp. Rendering (EGSR '06), pp. 51-60, 2006.
[35] T. Tyler, A. Novobilski, J. Dumas, and A. Warren, “The Utility of Perspecta 3D Volumetric Display for Completion of Tasks,” Proc. 17th Ann. Symp. Electronic Imaging Science and Technology, pp. 268-279, 2005.
[36] A.S. Wang, G. Narayan, D. Kao, and D. Liang, “An Evaluation of Using Real-Time Volumetric Display of 3D Ultrasound Data for Intracardiac Catheter Manipulation Tasks,” Proc. Fourth Int'l Workshop Volume Graphics, pp. 41-45, 2005.
[37] F. Xu and K. Mueller, “Accelerating Popular Tomographic Reconstruction Algorithms on Commodity PC Graphics Hardware,” IEEE Trans. Nuclear Science, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 654-663, 2005.
33 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool