The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.02 - March/April (2008 vol.14)
pp: 412-425
ABSTRACT
The apparent reflectance of a surface depends upon the resolution at which it is imaged. Conventional reflectance models represent reflection at a single predetermined resolution; however, a low-resolution pixel that views a greater surface area often exhibits a reflectance more complicated than a high-resolution pixel with a smaller area. To address resolution dependency in reflectance, we utilize a generalized reflectance model based on a mixture of multiple conventional models, and present a framework for efficiently determining the reflectance mixture model of each pixel with respect to resolution. Mixture model parameters are precomputed at multiple resolutions and stored in mipmaps. Unlike color textures, these reflectance parameters cannot be accurately filtered by trilinear interpolation, so we present a technique for nonlinear mipmap filtering that minimizes aliasing in rendered results. This framework can be applied with various parametric reflectance models in graphics hardware for real-time processing. With this technique for filtering and rendering with mipmaps of reflectance mixture models, our system can rapidly render the resolution-dependent reflectance effects that are customarily disregarded in conventional rendering methods. At the end of this paper, we also describe how shadowing and masking effects can be incorporated into this framework to increase the realism of rendering.
INDEX TERMS
Antialiasing, Color, Shading, shadowing, and texture, Reflectance
CITATION
Stephen Lin, Ping Tan, Baining Guo, Harry Shum, "Filtering and Rendering of Resolution-Dependent Reflectance Models", IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics, vol.14, no. 2, pp. 412-425, March/April 2008, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2007.70439
REFERENCES
[1] H. Hoppe, “Progressive Meshes,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, 1996.
[2] L. Williams, “Pyramidal Parametrics,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '83, pp. 1-11, 1983.
[3] M. Toksvig, “Mipmapping Normal Maps,” J. Graphics Tools, vol. 10, pp. 65-71, 2005.
[4] B. Cabral, N. Max, and R. Springmeyer, “Bidirectional Reflection Functions from Surface Bump Maps,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, 1987.
[5] S.H. Westin, J.R. Arvo, and K.E. Torrance, “Predicting Reflectance Functions from Complex Surfaces,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '92, pp. 255-264, 1992.
[6] M. Ashikhmin, S. Premoze, and P. Shirley, “A Microfacet-Based BRDF Generator,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '00, pp. 65-74, 2000.
[7] K.J. Dana, B. van Ginneken, S.K. Nayar, and J.J. Koenderink, “Reflectance and Texture of Real-World Surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1-34, 1999.
[8] B.G. Becker and N.L. Max, “Smooth Transitions between Bump Rendering Algorithms,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, 1993.
[9] C. Han, B. Sun, R. Ramamoorthi, and E. Grinspun, “Frequency Domain Normal Map Filtering,” ACM Trans. Graphics/Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '07, vol. 26, no. 3, 2007.
[10] P. Tan, S. Lin, L. Quan, B. Guo, and H.-Y. Shum, “Multiresolution Reflectance Filtering,” Proc. EuroGraphics Symp. Rendering, pp. 111-116, 2005.
[11] F. Neyret, “Modeling, Animating, and Rendering Complex Scenes Using Volumetric Textures,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 55-70, Jan.-Mar. 1998.
[12] A. Fournier, “Normal Distribution Functions and Multiple Surfaces,” Proc. Graphics Interface Workshop Local Illumination, pp.45-52, 1992.
[13] X. Liu, Y. Hu, J. Zhang, X. Tong, B. Guo, and H.-Y. Shum, “Synthesis and Rendering of Bidirectional Texture Functions on Arbitrary Surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 278-289, May-June 2004.
[14] W.-C. Ma, S.-H. Chao, Y.-T. Tseng, Y.-Y. Chuang, C.-F. Chang, B.-Y. Chen, and M. Ouhyoung, “Level-of-Detail Representation of Bidirectional Texture Functions for Real-Time Rendering,” Proc. Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, 2005.
[15] H.P.A. Lensch, M. Goesele, J. Kautz, W. Heidrich, and H.-P. Seidel, “Image-Based Reconstruction of Spatially Varying Materials,” Proc. Eurographics Workshop Rendering Techniques, pp. 103-114, 2001.
[16] A.P. Dempster, N.M. Laird, and D.B. Rubin, “Maximum-Likelihood from Incomplete Data via the EM Algorithm,” J. Royal Statistical Soc., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 1-38, 1977.
[17] J. Bilmes, “A Gentle Tutorial on the Em Algorithm and Its Application to Parameter Estimation for Gaussian Mixture and Hidden Markov Models,” Technical Report ICSI-TR-97-021, Univ. of California–Berkeley, 1997.
[18] G.J. McLachlan and T. Krishnan, The EM Algorithm and Extensions. John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
[19] W. Press, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, and B. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, second ed. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992.
[20] G.J. Ward, “Measuring and Modeling Anisotropic Reflection,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, 1992.
[21] R.L. Cook and K.E. Torrance, “A Reflectance Model for Computer Graphics,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '81, pp. 307-316, 1981.
[22] B.T. Phong, “Illumination for Computer Generated Pictures,” Comm. ACM, vol. 18, pp. 311-317, 1975.
[23] N. Max, “Horizon Mapping: Shadows for Bump-Mapped Surfaces,” The Visual Computer, vol. 4, pp. 109-117, 1988.
[24] J. Kautz, P.-P. Vázquez, W. Heidrich, and H.-P. Seidel, “Unified Approach to Prefiltered Environment Maps,” Proc. Eurographics Workshop Rendering Techniques, pp. 185-196, 2000.
21 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool