CSDL Home IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics 2008 vol.14 Issue No.01 - January/February

Subscribe

Issue No.01 - January/February (2008 vol.14)

pp: 37-46

ABSTRACT

We propose a novel approach to proportional derivative (PD) control exploiting the fact that these equations can be solved analytically for a single degree of freedom. The analytic solution indicates what the PD controller would accomplish in isolation without interference from neighboring joints, gravity and external forces, outboard limbs, etc. Our approach to time integration includes an inverse dynamics formulation that automatically incorporates global feedback so that the per joint predictions are achieved. This effectively decouples stiffness from control so that we obtain the desired target regardless of the stiffness of the joint, which merely determines when we get there. We start with simple examples to illustrate our method, and then move on to more complex examples including PD control of line segment muscle actuators.

INDEX TERMS

Computer Graphics, Physically based modeling, Animation, Kinematics and dynamics

CITATION

Rachel Weinstein, Eran Guendelman, Ronald Fedkiw, "Impulse-Based Control of Joints and Muscles",

*IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics*, vol.14, no. 1, pp. 37-46, January/February 2008, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2007.70437REFERENCES

- [1] W.W. Armstrong and M. Green, “The Dynamics of Articulated Rigid Bodies for Purposes of Animation,”
Proc. Graphics Interface Conf., pp. 407-415, May 1985.- [2] J. Wilhelms and B.A. Barsky, “Using Dynamic Analysis to Animate Articulated Bodies such as Humans and Robots,”
Proc. Graphics Interface Conf., pp. 97-104, May 1985.- [3] A. Witkin and M. Kass, “Spacetime Constraints,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '88, vol. 22, pp. 159-168, 1988.- [4] J.K. Hodgins, W.L. Wooten, D.C. Brogan, and J.F. O'Brien, “Animating Human Athletics,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '95, pp.71-78, 1995.- [5] P. Faloutsos, M. van de Panne, and D. Terzopoulos, “Composable Controllers for Physics-Based Character Animation,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '01/ACM Trans. Graphics, pp. 251-260, 2001.- [6] J. Wilhelms, “Virya–A Motion Control Editor for Kinematic and Dynamic Animation,”
Proc. Graphics Interface Conf./Vision Interface, pp. 141-146, 1986.- [7] E. Kokkevis, D. Metaxas, and N. Badler, “User-Controlled Physics-Based Animation for Articulated Figures,”
Proc. Computer Animation, 1996.- [9] J. Laszlo, M. van de Panne, and E. Fiume, “Limit Cycle Control and Its Application to the Animation of Balancing and Walking,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '96, pp. 155-162, 1996.- [10] M. Neff and E. Fiume, “Modeling Tension and Relaxation for Computer Animation,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '02, pp. 77-80, 2002.- [12] P. Isaacs and M. Cohen, “Controlling Dynamic Simulation with Kinematic Constraints, Behavior Functions and Inverse Dynamics,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '87, pp. 215-224, 1987.- [14] V.B. Zordan and J.K. Hodgins, “Tracking and Modifying Upper-Body Human Motion Data with Dynamic Simulation,”
Proc. Computer Animation and Simulation, Sept. 1999.- [15] V.B. Zordan and J.K. Hodgins, “Motion Capture-Driven Simulations that Hit and React,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '02, pp. 89-96, 2002.- [17] M. McKenna and D. Zeltzer, “Dynamic Simulation of a Complex Human Figure Model with Low Level Behavior Control,”
Presence, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 431-456, 1996.- [18] B. Mirtich and J. Canny, “Impulse-Based Dynamic Simulation,”
Proc. Workshop Algorithmic Foundations of Robotics, pp. 407-418, 1995.- [21] D. Kaufman, T. Edmunds, and D. Pai, “Fast Frictional Dynamics for Rigid Bodies,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '05/ACM Trans. Graphics, pp.946-956, 2005.- [23] M. Cline and D. Pai, “Post-Stabilization for Rigid Body Simulation with Contact and Constraints,”
Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Robotics and Automation (ICRA '03), pp. 3744-3751, Sept. 2003.- [30] M. van de Panne and E. Fiume, “Sensor-Actuator Networks,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '93, pp. 335-342, 1993.- [31] M. van de Panne, R. Kim, and E. Fiume, “Virtual Wind-Up Toys for Animation,”
Proc. Graphics Interface Conf., pp. 208-215, 1994.- [34] M.F. Cohen, “Interactive Spacetime Control for Animation,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '92, pp. 293-302, 1992.- [43] J. Teran, S. Blemker, V. Ng, and R. Fedkiw, “Finite Volume Methods for the Simulation of Skeletal Muscle,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '03/Eurographics Symp. Computer Animation, pp. 68-74, 2003.- [45] I. Albrecht, J. Haber, and H.P. Seidel, “Construction and Animation of Anatomically Based Human Hand Models,”
Proc.ACM SIGGRAPH '03/Eurographics Symp. Computer Animation, pp. 98-109, 2003.- [46] W. Tsang, K. Singh, and E. Fiume, “Helping Hand: An Anatomically Accurate Inverse Dynamics Solution for Unconstrained Hand Motion,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '05, pp. 319-328, 2005.- [47] S.-H. Lee and D. Terzopoulos, “Heads Up! Biomechanical Modeling and Neuromuscular Control of the Neck,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '06/ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 25, no. 3, pp.1188-1198, 2006.- [48] T. Komura and Y. Shinagawa, “Motion Conversion Based on the Musculoskeletal System,”
Proc. Graphics Interface Conf., pp. 27-36, June 2001.- [50] D.K. Pai, S. Sueda, and Q. Wei, “Fast Physically Based Musculoskeletal Simulation,”
Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '05 Sketches and Applications, 2005.- [53] B. Garner and M. Pandy, “Musculoskeletal Model of the Upper Limb Based on the Visible Human Male Dataset,”
Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Eng., vol. 4, pp. 93-126, 2001. |