This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Contextualized Videos: Combining Videos with Environment Models to Support Situational Understanding
November/December 2007 (vol. 13 no. 6)
pp. 1568-1575
Multiple spatially-related videos are increasingly used in security, communication, and other applications. Since it can be difficult to understand the spatial relationships between multiple videos in complex environments (e.g. to predict a person’s path through a building), some visualization techniques, such as video texture projection, have been used to aid spatial understanding. In this paper, we identify and begin to characterize an overall class of visualization techniques that combine video with 3D spatial context. This set of techniques, which we call contextualized videos, forms a design palette which must be well understood so that designers can select and use appropriate techniques that address the requirements of particular spatial video tasks. In this paper, we first identify user tasks in video surveillance that are likely to benefit from contextualized videos and discuss the video, model, and navigation related dimensions of the contextualized video design space. We then describe our contextualized video testbed which allows us to explore this design space and compose various video visualizations for evaluation. Finally, we describe the results of our process to identify promising design patterns through user selection of visualization features from the design space, followed by user interviews.

[1] M.Q.W. Baldonado, A. Woodruff, and A. Kuchinsky, "Guidelines for Using Multiple Views in Information Visualization," Proc. Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces, pp. 110–119, 2000.
[2] D.A. Bowman, D. Johnson, and L. Hodges, "Testbed Evaluation of Virtual Environment Interaction Techniques," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 75–95, 2001.
[3] D.A. Bowman, J. Gabbard, and D. Hix, "A Survey of Usability Evaluation in Virtual Environments: Classification and Comparison of Methods," Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 404–424, 2002.
[4] S.K. Card, J.D. Mackinlay et al. Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think, San Francisco, Morgan Kaufmann, 1999.
[5] M. Chen, R. Botchen, R. Hashim, and I. Thornton, "Visual Signatures in Video Visualization," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 1093–1100, 2006.
[6] G. Daniel and M. Chen, "Video Visualization," Proc. IEEE Visualization, pp. 409–416, 2003.
[7] N. Elmqvist and P. Tsigas, "A Taxonomy of 3D Occlusion Management Techniques," Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality, 2007.
[8] A. Girgensohn, F. Shipman, T. Turner, and L. Wilcox, "Effects of presenting geographic context on tracking activity between cameras," In Proc. SIGCHI, pp. 1167–1176, 2007.
[9] J. Han and B. Smith, "CU-SeeMe VR immersive desktop teleconferencing," Proc. 4th ACM International Conference on Multimedia, pp. 199–207, 1996.
[10] D. House, A. Bair, and C. Ware, "On the Optimization of Visualizations of Complex Phenomena," Proc. IEEE Visualization, pp. 1–21, 2005.
[11] J. Martin, "High Tech Illustration," Addison-Wesley, 1989.
[12] M.J. McGuffin, L. Tancau, and R. Balakrishnan, "Using deformations for browsing volumetric data," Proc. IEEE Visualization, pp. 53, 2003.
[13] D.A. Norman, The Design of Everyday Things. New York, Doubleday, 1990.
[14] Open Scene Graph. http:/
[15] H.K. Pillay, "Cognitive Load and Mental Rotation: Structuring Orthographic Projection for Learning and Problem Solving," Instructional Science, vol. 22, pp. 91–113, 1994.
[16] H.S. Sawhney, A. Arpa, R. Kumar, S. Samarasekera, M. Aggarwal, S. Hsu, D. Nister, and K. Hanna, "Video Flashlights: Real Time Rendering of Multiple Videos for Immersive Model Visualization", Proc. 13th Eurographics workshop on Rendering, pp. 157–168, 2002.
[17] H. Schnädelbach, A. Penn, P. Steadman, S. Benford, B. Koleva, and T. Rodden, "Moving Office: Inhabiting a Dynamic Building," Proc. ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pp. 313–322, 2006.
[18] I.O. Sebe, J. Hu, S. You, and U. Neumann, "3D Video Surveillance with Augmented Virtual Environments," First ACM SIGMM International Workshop on Video Surveillance, pp. 107–112, 2003.
[19] R.N. Shepard and J. Metzler, "Mental Rotation of Three-Dimensional Objects," Science, vol. 171, pp. 701–703, 1971.
[20] K. Shoemake, "ARCBALL: a user interface for specifying threedimensional orientation using a mouse." In Proc. Graphics Interface, pp. 151–156, 1992.
[21] J.J. Thomas and K.A. Cook, Illuminating the Path: The Research and Development Agenda for Visual Analytics, IEEE Press, 2005.
[22] M. Tory, "Mental Registration of 2D and 3D Visualizations (an Empirical Study)," Proc. IEEE Visualization, pp. 49, 2003.
[23] M. Tory, A. E. Kirkpatrick, M.S. Atkins, T. Moller, "Visualization Task Performance with 2D, 3D, and Combination Displays," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, pp. 2–13, 2006.
[24] M.C. Velez, D. Silver, and M. Tremaine, "Understanding Visualization through Spatial Ability Differences," Proc. IEEE Visualization, 2005.

Index Terms:
situational awareness, videos, virtual environment models, design space, testbed design and evaluation.
Yi Wang, David M. Krum, Enylton M. Coelho, Doug A. Bowman, "Contextualized Videos: Combining Videos with Environment Models to Support Situational Understanding," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1568-1575, Nov.-Dec. 2007, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2007.70544
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.