This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Interactive Tree Comparison for Co-located Collaborative Information Visualization
November/December 2007 (vol. 13 no. 6)
pp. 1232-1239
In many domains increased collaboration has lead to more innovation by fostering the sharing of knowledge, skills, and ideas. Shared analysis of information visualizations does not only lead to increased information processing power, but team members can also share, negotiate, and discuss their views and interpretations on a dataset and contribute unique perspectives on a given problem. Designing technologies to support collaboration around information visualizations poses special challenges and relatively few systems have been designed. We focus on supporting small groups collaborating around information visualizations in a co-located setting, using a shared interactive tabletop display. We introduce an analysis of challenges and requirements for the design of co-located collaborative information visualization systems. We then present a new system that facilitates hierarchical data comparison tasks for this type of collaborative work. Our system supports multi-user input, shared and individual views on the hierarchical data visualization, flexible use of representations, and flexible workspace organization to facilitate group work around visualizations.

[1] V. Anupam, C. Bajaj, D. Schikore, and M. Schikore, Distributed and Collaborative Visualization. Computer, 27 (7): 37–43, July 1994.
[2] J. Bertin, Semiology of Graphics: Diagrams Networks Maps. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, USA, 1983.
[3] M. C. Chuah and S. F. Roth, Visualizing Common Ground. In Proc. of the Conf. on Information Visualization (IV), pages 365–372, Los Alamitos, USA, 2003. IEEE Comp. Society.
[4] C. Forlines and C. Shen, DTLens: Multi-user Tabletop Spatial Data Exploration. In Proc. of User Interface Software and Technology (UIST), pages 119–122, New York, USA, 2005. ACM Press.
[5] M. Graham and J. Kennedy, Combining Linking & Focusing Techniques for a Multiple Hierarchy Visualisation. In Proc. of the Conf. on Information Visualization (IV), pages 425–432, Los Alamitos, USA, 2001. IEEE Comp. Society.
[6] I. J. Grimstead, D. W. Walker, and N. J. Avis, Collaborative Visualization: A Review and Taxonomy. In Proc. of the Symp. on Distributed Simulation and Real-Time Applications, pages 61–69, Los Alamitos, USA, 2005. IEEE Comp. Society.
[7] F. Guimbretiére and T. Winograd, FlowMenu: Combining Command, Text, and Data Entry. In Proc. of User Interface Software and Technology (UIST), pages 213–216, New York, NY, USA, 2000. ACM Press.
[8] C. Gutwin and S. Greenberg, Design for Individuals, Design for Groups: Tradeoffs between Power and Workspace Awareness. In Proc. of Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), pages 207–216, New York, USA, 1998. ACM Press.
[9] J. Heer, F. B. Viégas, and M. Wattenberg, Voyagers and Voyeurs: Supporting Asynchronous Collaborative Information Visualization. In Proc. of Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), pages 1029–1038, New York, USA, 2007. ACM Press.
[10] T. Isenberg, A. Miede, and S. Carpendale, A Buffer Framework for Supporting Responsive Interaction in Information Visualization Interfaces. In Proc. of C5, pages 262–269, Los Alamitos, USA, 2006. IEEE Comp. Society.
[11] T. Isenberg, P. Neumann, S. Carpendale, S. Nix, and S. Greenberg, Interactive Annotations on Large, High-Resolution Information Displays. In Conf. Comp. of IEEE VIS, InfoVis, and VAST, pages 124–125, Los Alamitos, 2006. IEEE Comp. Society.
[12] R. Johansen, Groupware—Computer Support for Business Teams. The Free Press, New York, USA, 1988.
[13] R. Kruger, S. Carpendale, S. D. Scott, and S. Greenberg, Roles of Orientation in Tabletop Collaboration: Comprehension, Coordination and Communication. Journal of Computer Supported Collaborative Work, 13 (5–6): 501–537, 2004.
[14] G. Mark, K. Carpenter, and A. Kobsa, A Model of Synchronous Collaborative Information Visualization. In Proc. of the Conf. on Information Visualization (IV), pages 373–381, Los Alamitos, USA, 2003. IEEE Comp. Society.
[15] G. Mark, A. Kobsa, and V. Gonzalez, Do Four Eyes See Better than Two? Collaborative versus Individual Discovery in Data Visualization Systems. In Proc. of the Conf. on Information Visualization (IV), pages 249–255, Los Alamitos, USA, 2002. IEEE Comp. Society.
[16] MayaViz. Comotion®. Website, 2007. http:/www.mayaviz.com/ (accessed March 2007).
[17] Spotfire, Inc. Decisionsite® Posters. Website, 2007. http:/www.spotfire.com/ (accessed March 2007).
[18] T. Munzner, F. Guimbretire, S. Tasiran, L. Zhang, and Y. Zhou, TreeJuxtaposer: Scalable Tree Comparison Using Focus+Context with Guaranteed Visibility. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 22 (3): 453–462, July 2003.
[19] P. Neumann, A. Tang, and S. Carpendale, A Framework for Visual Information Analysis. Technical Report 2007-87123, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, July 2007.
[20] K. S. Park, A. Kapoor, and J. Leigh, Lessons Learned from Employing Multiple Perspectives In a Collaborative Virtual Environment for Visualizing Scientific Data. In Proc. of Collaborative Virtual Environments (CVE), pages 73–82, New York, USA, 2000. ACM Press.
[21] D. Pinelle, C. Gutwin, and S. Greenberg, Task Analysis for Groupware Usability Evaluation: Modeling Shared-Workspace Tasks with the Mechanics of Collaboration. ACM Transaction of Human Computer Interaction, 10 (4): 281–311, Dec. 2003.
[22] M. Ringel Morris, A. Paepcke, T. Winograd, and J. Stamberger, Team-Tag: Exploring Centralized versus Replicated Controls for Co-located Tabletop Groupware. In Proc. of Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), pages 1273–1282, New York, USA, 2006. ACM Press.
[23] M. Ringel Morris, K. Ryall, C. Shen, C. Forlines, and F. Vernier, Beyond 'Social Protocols': Multi-User Coordination Policies for Co-located Groupware. In Proc. of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), pages 262–265, New York, USA, 2004. ACM Press.
[24] Y. Rogers and S. Lindley, Collaborating Around Vertical and Horizontal Large Interactive Displays: Which Way is Best? Interacting with Computers, 16 (6): 1133–1152, Dec. 2004.
[25] K. Ryall, A. Esenther, C. Forlines, C. Shen, S. Shipman, M. Ringel Morris, K. Everitt, and F. Vernier, Identity-Differentiating Widgets for Multiuser Interactive Surfaces. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 26 (5): 6–64, Sept./Oct. 2006.
[26] S. D. Scott, M. S. T. Carpendale, and S. Habelski, Storage Bins: Mobile Storage for Collaborative Tabletop Displays. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 25 (4): 58–65, July/Aug. 2005.
[27] S. D. Scott, M. S. T. Carpendale, and K. M. Inkpen, Territoriality in Collaborative Tabletop Workspaces. In Proc. of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), pages 294–303, New York, NY, USA, 2004. ACM Press.
[28] S. D. Scott, K. D. Grant, and R. L. Mandryk, System Guidelines for Co-located Collaborative Work on a Tabletop Display. In Proc. of the European Conf. on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (ECSCW), pages 159–178, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2003. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
[29] B. Shneiderman, The Eyes Have It: A Task by Data Type Taxonomy for Information Visualizations. In Proc. of the IEEE Symp. on Visual Languages, pages 336–343, Los Alamitos, USA, 1996. IEEE Comp. Society.
[30] J. T. Stasko and E. Zhang, Focus+Context Display and Navigation Techniques for Enhancing Radial, Space-Filling Hierarchy Visualizations. In Proc. of the Symp. on Information Visualization (InfoVis, pages 57–65, Los Alamitos, USA, 2000. IEEE Comp. Society.
[31] P. Tandler, T. Prante, C. Müller-Tomfelde, B. Streitz, and R. Steinmetz, ConnecTables: Dynamic Coupling of Displays for the Flexible Creation of Shared Workspaces. In Proc. of User Interface Software and Technology (UIST), pages 11–20, New York, USA, 2001. ACM Press.
[32] A. Tang, M. Tory, B. Po, P. Neumann, and S. Carpendale, Collaborative Coupling over Tabletop Displays. In Proc. of Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), pages 1181–1290, New York, 2006. ACM Press.
[33] J. J. Thomas and K. A. Cook, editors. Illuminating the Path: The Research and Development Agenda for Visual Analytics. National Visualization and Analytics Center, Aug. 2005.
[34] E. R. Tufte, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Graphic Press, Cheshire, Connecticut, USA, 2001.
[35] F. Vernier, N. Lesh, and C. Shen, Visualization Techniques for Circular Tabletop Interfaces. In Proc. of Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI), pages 257–263, New York, USA, 2002. ACM Press.
[36] C. Ware, Information Visualization — Perception for Design. Morgan Kaufmann Series in Interactive Technologies. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Amsterdam, Boston, Heidelberg, and others, 2nd edition, 2000.
[37] G. Wesche, J. Wind, M. Göbe, L. Rosenblum, J. Durbin, R. Doyle, D. Tate, R. King, B. Fröhlich, M. Fischer, M. Agrawala, A. Beers, P. Hanrahan, and S. Bryson, Application of the Responsive Workbench. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 17 (4): 10–15, July–Aug. 1997.
[38] D. Wigdor, C. Shen, C. Forlines, and R. Balakrishnan, Perception of Elementary Graphical Elements in Tabletop and Multi-surface Environments. In Proc. of Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), pages 473–482, New York, USA, 2007. ACM Press.
[39] B. Yost and C. North, The Perceptual Scalability of Visualization. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 12 (5): 837–844, Sept./Oct. 2005.
[40] J. Zhang and D. A. Norman, Rrepresentations in Distributed Cognitive Tasks. Cognitive Science, 18 (1): 87–122, Jan.–Mar. 1994.
[41] T. Zuk, L. Schlesier, P. Neumann, M. S. Hancock, and M. S. T. Carpendale, Heuristics for Information Visualization Evaluation. In Proc. of the Workshop Beyond Time and Errors (BELIV 2006), held in conjunction with AVI, pages 55–60, New York, USA, 2006. ACM Press.

Index Terms:
Information visualization, collaboration, co-located work, hierarchical data comparison
Citation:
Petra Isenberg, Sheelagh Carpendale, "Interactive Tree Comparison for Co-located Collaborative Information Visualization," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1232-1239, Nov.-Dec. 2007, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2007.70568
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.