This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Scanning Scene Tunnel for City Traversing
March/April 2006 (vol. 12 no. 2)
pp. 155-167

Abstract—This paper proposes a visual representation named scene tunnel for capturing urban scenes along routes and visualizing them on the Internet. We scan scenes with multiple cameras or a fish-eye camera on a moving vehicle, which generates a real scene archive along streets that is more complete than previously proposed route panoramas. Using a translating spherical eye, properly set planes of scanning, and unique parallel-central projection, we explore the image acquisition of the scene tunnel from camera selection and alignment, slit calculation, scene scanning, to image integration. The scene tunnels cover high buildings, ground, and various viewing directions and have uniformed resolutions along the street. The sequentially organized scene tunnel benefits texture mapping onto the urban models. We analyze the shape characteristics in the scene tunnels for designing visualization algorithms. After combining this with a global panorama and forward image caps, the capped scene tunnels can provide continuous views directly for virtual or real navigation in a city. We render scene tunnel dynamically by view warping, fast transmission, and flexible interaction. The compact and continuous scene tunnel facilitates model construction, data streaming, and seamless route traversing on the Internet and mobile devices.

[1] J.Y. Zheng, “Digital Route Panorama,” IEEE Multimedia, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 57-68, 2003.
[2] F. Rottensteiner and C. Briese, “Automatic Generation of Building Models from LIDAR Data and the Integration of Aerial Images,” Proc. Int'l Soc. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Conf. ISPRS, XXXIV, 2003.
[3] H. Zhao and R. Shibasaki, “A Vehicle-Borne Urban 3D Acquisition System Using Single-Row Laser Range Scanners,” IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Part B, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 658-666, 2003.
[4] J.Y. Zheng and S. Tsuji, “Panoramic Representation for Route Recognition by a Mobile Robot,” Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 55-76, 1992.
[5] J.Y. Zheng and S. Tsuji, “Generating Dynamic Projection Images for Scene Representation and Recognition,” J. Computer Vision and Image Understanding, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 237-256, Dec. 1998.
[6] R. Gupta and R. Hartley, “Linear Pushbroom Cameras,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 963-975, Sept. 1997.
[7] S.E. Chen and L. Williams, “Quicktime VR: An Image-Based Approach to Virtual Environment Navigation,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '95, pp. 29-38, 1995.
[8] T. Endo, A. Katayama, and H. Tamura, “Image Based Walk through System for Large-Scale Scenes,” Proc. Soc. Virtual Systems and MultiMedia Conf. '98, vol. 1, pp. 269-274, 1998.
[9] S. Peleg, B. Rousso, A. Rav-Acha, and A. Zomet, “Mosaicing on Adaptive Manifolds,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 1144-1154, Oct. 2000.
[10] Z. Zhu, A. Hanson, and E.M. Riseman, “Generalized Parallel-Perspective Stereo Mosaics from Airborne Video,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 226-237, Feb. 2004.
[11] J.Y. Zheng, “Stabilizing Route Panorama,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Pattern Recognition, pp. 351-384, 2004.
[12] S. Li and A. Hayashi, “Robot Navigation in Outdoor Environments by Using GPS Information and Panoramic Views,” Proc. IEEE/RSJ Int'l Conf. Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 570-575, 1998.
[13] R. Szeliski and H.Y. Shum, “Creating Full View Panoramic Image Mosaics and Environment Maps,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '97, pp. 251-258, 1997.
[14] J.Y. Zheng, Y. Zhou, and M. Shi, “Scanning and Rendering Scene Tunnel for Virtual City Traversing,” Proc. ACM Symp. Virtual Reality Software and Technology '04, pp. 106-113, 2004.
[15] P. Rademacher and G. Bishop, “Multiple-Center-of-Projection Images,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '98, pp. 199-206, 1998.
[16] M. Shi and J.Y. Zheng, “A Slit Scanning Depth of Route Panorama Based on Stationary Blur,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, vol. 1, pp. 1047-1054, 2005.
[17] J.Y. Zheng and M. Shi, “Mapping Cityscapes into Cyberspace for Visualization,” J. Computer Animation and Virtual World, vol. 16, pp. 97-107, 2005.
[18] C. Fruh, S. Jain, and A. Zakhor, “Data Processing Algorithms for Generating Textured 3D Building Facade Meshes from Laser Scans and Camera Images,” Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 159-184, 2005.
[19] A. Siu, A. Wan, and R. Lau, “Modeling and Rendering of Walkthrough Environments with Panoramic Images,” Proc. ACM Conf. Virtual Reality Software and Technology, pp. 114-121, 2004.
[20] L. McMillan and G. Bishop, “Plenoptic Modeling: An Image Based Rendering System,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '95, pp. 39-46, 1995.
[21] S. Teller et al., “Calibrated Registered Images of an Extended Urban Area,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition '01, pp. 813-820, 2001.
[22] A. Lippman, “Movie-Map: An Application of the Optical Video Disc to Computer Graphics,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '80, 1980.
[23] M. Uyttendaele et al., “Image-Based Interactive Exploration of Real-World Environments,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 24, no. 3, May/June 2004.
[24] S. Li, M. Nakano, and N. Chiba, “Acquisition of Spherical Image by Fish-Eye Conversion Lens,” Proc. Conf. Virtual Reality 2004, pp. 235-236, 2004.

Index Terms:
Digitizing and scanning, image-based modeling and rendering, imaging geometry, augmented and virtual reality,Web-based interaction.
Jiang Yu Zheng, Yu Zhou, Panayiotis Mili, "Scanning Scene Tunnel for City Traversing," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 155-167, March-April 2006, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2006.37
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.