This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Stylized and Abstract Painterly Rendering System Using a Multiscale Segmented Sphere Hierarchy
January/February 2006 (vol. 12 no. 1)
pp. 61-72

Abstract—This paper presents a novel system framework for interactive, three-dimensional, stylized, abstract painterly rendering. In this framework, the input models are first represented using 3D point sets and then this point-based representation is used to build a multiresolution bounding sphere hierarchy. From the leaf to root nodes, spheres of various sizes are rendered into multiple-size strokes on the canvas. The proposed sphere hierarchy is developed using multiscale region segmentation. This segmentation task assembles spheres with similar attribute regularities into a meaningful region hierarchy. These attributes include colors, positions, and curvatures. This hierarchy is very useful in the following respects: 1) it ensures the screen-space stroke density, 2) controls different input model abstractions, 3) maintains region structures such as the edges/boundaries at different scales, and 4) renders models interactively. By choosing suitable abstractions, brush stroke, and lighting parameters, we can interactively generate various painterly styles. We also propose a novel scheme that reduces the popping effect in animation sequences. Many different stylized images can be generated using the proposed framework.

[1] B.J. Meier, “Painterly Rendering for Animation,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '96, pp. 477-484, 1996.
[2] C.J. Curtis, S.E. Anderson, J.E. Seims, K.W. Fleischer, and D.H. Salesin, “Computer-Generated Watercolor,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '97, pp. 421-430, 1997.
[3] E. Akelman, “Implicit Surface Painting,” Proc. Implicit Surfaces Conf., pp. 63-68, 1998.
[4] A. Hertzmann, “Painterly Rendering with Curved Brush Strokes of Multiple Sizes,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '98, pp. 453-460, 1998.
[5] A. Hertzmann, C.E. Jacobs, N. Oliver, B. Curless, and D.H. Salesin, “Image Analogies,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '01, pp. 327-340, 2001.
[6] D.-L. Way and Z.-C. Shih, “The Synthesis of Rock Textures in Chinese Landscape Painting,” Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 20, no. 3, 2001.
[7] B. Wang, W. Wang, H. Yang, and J. Sun, “Efficient Example-Based Painting and Synthesis of 2D Directional Texture,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, pp. 266-277, 2004.
[8] M. Salisbury, C. Anderson, D. Lischinski, and D.H. Salesin, “Scale-Dependent Reproduction of Pen-and-Ink Illustrations,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '96, pp. 461-468, 1996.
[9] O. Deussen and T. Strothotte, “Computer-Generated Pen-and-Ink Illustration of Trees,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '00, pp. 13-18, 2003.
[10] A. Lu, C.J. Morris, J. Taylor, D.S. Ebert, C. Hansen, P. Rheingans, and M. Hartner, “Illustrative Interactive Stipple Rendering,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 127-138, Apr.-June 2003.
[11] O.M. Pastor, B. Freudenberg, and T. Strothotte, “Real-Time Animated Stippling,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 62-68, July/Aug. 2003.
[12] L. Markosian, M.A. Kowalski, D. Goldstein, S.J. Trychin, J.F. Hughes, and L.D. Bourdev, “Real-Time Nonphotorealistic Rendering,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '97, pp. 415-420, 1997.
[13] A. Lake, C. Marshall, M. Harris, and M. Blackstein, “Stylized Rendering Techniques for Scalable Real-Time 3D Animation,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Nonphotorealistic Animation and Rendering '00, pp. 13-20, 2000.
[14] E. Praun, H. Hoppe, M. Webb, and A. Finkelstein, “Real-Time Hatching,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '01, p. 581, 2001.
[15] D. Cornish, A. Rowan, and D. Luebke, “View-Dependent Particles for Interactive Non-Photorealistic Rendering,” Proc. Graphics Interface Conf. (GRIN '01), pp. 151-158, 2001.
[16] R.D. Kalnins, L. Markosian, B.J. Meier, M.A. Kowalski, J.C. Lee, P.L. Davidson, M. Webb, J.F. Hughes, and A. Finkelstein, “WYSIWYG NPR: Drawing Strokes Directly on 3D Models,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '02, pp. 755-762, 2002.
[17] M.A. Kowalski, L. Markosian, J.D. Northrup, L. Bourdev, R. Barzel, L.S. Holden, and J.F. Hughes, “Art-Based Rendering of Fur, Grass, and Trees,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '99, pp. 433-438, 1999.
[18] M.X. Nguyen, H. Xu, X. Yuan, and B. Chen, “INSPIRE: An Interactive Image Assisted Non-Photorealistic Rendering System,” Proc. 11th Pacific Conf. Computer Graphics and Applications (PG '03), pp. 472-476, Oct. 2003.
[19] H. Xu and B. Chen, “Stylized Rendering of 3D Scanned Real World Environments,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Nonphotorealistic Animation and Rendering '04, pp. 25-34, 2004.
[20] S. Rusinkiewicz and M. Levoy, “Qsplat: A Multiresolution Point Rendering System for Large Meshes,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '00, pp. 343-352, 2000.
[21] Y. Deng, B. Manjunath, and H. Shin, “Color Image Segmentation,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition '99, pp. 446-451, June 1999.
[22] D. DeCarlo and A. Santella, “Stylization and Abstraction of Photographs,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '02, pp. 769-776, 2002.
[23] B. Gooch, G. Coombe, and P. Shirley, “Artistic Vision: Painterly Rendering Using Computer Vision Technologies,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Nonphotorealistic Animation and Rendering, 2002.
[24] B. Gooch and A. Ashurst Gooch, Non-Photorealistic Rendering. A.K. Peters Ltd., 2001.
[25] T. Strothotte and S. Schlechtweg, Non-Photorealistic Computer Graphics. Modelling, Rendering, and Animation. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2002.
[26] P. Haeberli, “Paint by Numbers: Abstract Image Representations,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '90, pp. 207-214, 1990.
[27] G. Turk, “Re-Tiling Polygonal Surfaces,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '92, pp. 55-64, 1992.
[28] J. Hays and I. Essa, “Image and Video Based Painterly Animation,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Nonphotorealistic Animation and Rendering, 2004.
[29] M. Pauly, M. Gross, and L.P. Kobbelt, “Efficient Simplification of Point-Sampled Surfaces,” Proc. IEEE Visualization Conf. '02, pp. 163-170, 2002.
[30] JSEG_Software: http://vision.ece.ucsb.edu/segmentation/ jsegsoftware/, 2005.
[31] H. Hoppe, “Progressive Meshes,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '96, pp. 99-108, 1996.
[32] K. Perlin, “An Image Synthesizer,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '85, pp. 287-296, 1985.
[33] Y. Deng, C. Kenney, M.S. Moore, and B.S. Manjunath, “Peer Group Filtering and Perceptual Color Image Quantization,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Circuits and Systems, 1999.
[34] D. Cohen-Steiner, P. Alliez, and M. Desbrun, “Variational Shape Approximation,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 905-914, 2004.
[35] C.-H. Lin and T.-Y. Lee, “Metamorphosis of 3D Polyhedral Models Using Progressive Connectivity Transformations,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 2-12, Jan./Feb. 2005.
[36] T.-Y. Lee and P.-H. Hung, “Fast and Intuitive Metamorphosis of 3D Polyhedral Models Using SMCC Mesh Merging Scheme,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 85-98, Jan.-Mar. 2003.

Index Terms:
Painterly rendering, bounding sphere hierarchy, multiscale region segmentation, stylization and abstraction,stroke-based rendering.
Citation:
Ming-Te Chi, Tong-Yee Lee, "Stylized and Abstract Painterly Rendering System Using a Multiscale Segmented Sphere Hierarchy," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 61-72, Jan.-Feb. 2006, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2006.14
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.