This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Color Nonuniformity in Projection-Based Displays: Analysis and Solutions
March/April 2004 (vol. 10 no. 2)
pp. 177-188

Abstract—Large-area displays made up of several projectors show significant variation in color. In this paper, we identify different projector parameters that cause the color variation and study their effects on the luminance and chrominance characteristics of the display. This work leads to the realization that luminance varies significantly within and across projectors, while chrominance variation is relatively small, especially across projectors of same model. To address this situation, we present a method to achieve luminance matching across all pixels of a multiprojector display that results in photometrically uniform displays. We use a camera as a measurement device for this purpose. Our method comprises a one-time calibration step that generates a per channel per projector luminance attenuation map (LAM), which is then used to correct any image projected on the display at interactive rates on commodity graphics hardware. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort to match luminance across all the pixels of a multiprojector display.

[1] A. Majumder et al., "Achieving Color Uniformity Across Multi-Projector Displays," Proc. IEEE Visualization 2000, IEEE Press, Piscataway, N.J., 2000, pp. 117-124.
[2] M.C. Stone, Color Balancing Experimental Projection Displays Proc. Ninth IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conf., Apr. 2001.
[3] M.C. Stone, "Color and Brightness Appearance Issues in Tiled Displays," IEEE Computer Graphics&Applications, vol. 21, no. 5, Sept./Oct. 2001, pp. 58-66.
[4] R. Raskar, G. Welch, M. Cutts, A. Lake, L. Stesin, and H. Fuchs, The Office of the Future: A Unified Approach to Image Based Modeling and Spatially Immersive Display Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 168-176, 1998.
[5] S. Rudro, J. Zheng, T. Funkhouse, K. Li, and J.P. Singh, Load Balancing for Multi-Projector Rendering Systems Proc. SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Workshop Graphics Hardware, Aug. 1999.
[6] G. Humphreys, M. Eldridge, I. Buck, G. Stoll, M. Everett, and P. Hanrahan, Wiregl: A Scalable Graphics System for Clusters Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, 2001.
[7] I. Buck, G. Humphreys, and P. Hanrahan, Tracking Graphics State for Networked Rendering Proc. Eurographics/SIGGRAPH Workshop Graphics Hardware, 2000.
[8] G. Humphreys, I. Buck, M. Eldridge, and P. Hanrahan, Distributed Rendering for Scalable Displays Proc. IEEE Supercomputing, 2000.
[9] G. Humphreys and P. Hanrahan, A Distributed Graphics System for Large Tiled Displays Proc. IEEE Visualization, 1999.
[10] R. Raskar, M.S. Brown, R. Yang, W. Chen, H. Towles, B. Seales, and H. Fuchs, Multi Projector Displays Using Camera Based Registration Proc. IEEE Visualization, 1999.
[11] R. Yang, D. Gotz, J. Hensley, H. Towles, and M.S. Brown, Pixelflex: A Reconfigurable Multi-Projector Display System Proc. IEEE Visualization, 2001.
[12] G. Humphreys, M. Houston, R. Ng, R. Frank, S. Ahem, P. Kirchner, and J. Klosowski, Chromium: A Stream Processing Framework for Interactive Rendering on Clusters ACM Trans. Graphics, 2002.
[13] C. Cruz-Neira, D.J. Sandin, and T.A. Defanti, Surround-Screen Projection-Based Virtual Reality: The Design and Implementation of the CAVE Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, 1993.
[14] R.A. Chorley and J. Laylock, Human Factor Consideration for the Interface between Electro-Optical Display and the Human Visual System Displays, vol. 4, 1981.
[15] E.J. Giorgianni and T.E. Madden, Digital Color Management: Encoding Solutions. Addison-Wesley, 1998.
[16] D.H. Brainard, Calibration of a Computer Controlled Color Monitor Color Research and Applications, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 23-34, Feb. 1989.
[17] P.E. Debevec and J. Malik, Recovering High Dynamic Range Radiance Maps from Photographs Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 369-378, 1997.
[18] M. Hereld, I.R. Judson, and R. Stevens, Dottytoto: A Measurement Engine for Aligning Multi-Projector Display Systems Argonne Nat'l Laboratory preprint ANL/MCS-P958-0502, May 2002.
[19] A. Majumder, Properties of Color Variation across Multi-Projector Displays Proc. SID Eurodisplay, 2002.
[20] C. Poynton, A Techical Introduction to Digital Video. John Wiley&Sons, 1996.
[21] C.J. Lloyd, Quantifying Edge Blend Quality: Correlation with Observed Judgements Proc. Image Conf., 2002.
[22] S. Daly, The Visual Differences Predictor: An Algorithm for the Assessment of Image Fidelity Digital Images and Human Vision, A.B. Watson, ed., pp. 179-206, MIT Press, 1993.
[23] R.L. De Valois and K.K. De Valois, Spatial Vision. Oxford Univ. Press, 1988.
[24] D.L. MacAdam, Visual Sensitivity to Color Differences in Daylight J. Optical Soc. Am., pp. 247-274, 1942.
[25] R. Raskar, Immersive Planar Displays Using Roughly Aligned Projectors Proc. IEEE Virtual Reality, 2000.

Index Terms:
Projection-based displays, tiled displays, color calibration.
Citation:
Aditi Majumder, Rick Stevens, "Color Nonuniformity in Projection-Based Displays: Analysis and Solutions," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 177-188, March-April 2004, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2004.1260769
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.