This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Texture Synthesis for 3D Shape Representation
October-December 2003 (vol. 9 no. 4)
pp. 512-524

Abstract—Considerable evidence suggests that a viewer's perception of the 3D shape of a polygonally-defined object can be significantly affected (either masked or enhanced) by the presence of a surface texture pattern. However, investigations into the specific mechanisms of texture's effect on shape perception are still ongoing and the question of how to design and apply a texture pattern to a surface in order to best facilitate shape perception remains open. Recently, we have suggested that, for anisotropic texture patterns, the accuracy of shape judgments may be significantly affected by the orientation of the surface texture pattern anisotropy with respect to the principal directions of curvature over the surface. However, it has been difficult, until this time, to conduct controlled studies specifically investigating the effect of texture orientation on shape perception because there has been no simple and reliable method for texturing an arbitrary doubly curved surface with a specified input pattern such that the dominant orientation of the pattern everywhere follows a predefined directional vector field over the surface, while seams and projective distortion of the pattern are avoided. In this paper, we present a straightforward and highly efficient method for achieving such a texture and describe how it can potentially be used to enhance shape representation. Specifically, we describe a novel, efficient, automatic algorithm for seamlessly synthesizing, from a sample 2D pattern, a high resolution fitted surface texture in which the dominant orientation of the pattern locally follows a specified vector field over the surface at a per-pixel level and in which seams, projective distortion, and repetition artifacts in the texture pattern are nearly completely avoided. We demonstrate the robustness of our method with a variety of texture swatches applied to standard graphics data sets and we explain how our method can be used to facilitate research in the perception of shape from texture.

[1] N. Arad and G. Elber, Isomeric Texture Mapping for Free-Form Surfaces Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 247-256, 1997.
[2] M. Ashikhmin, "Synthesizing Natural Textures," Proc. ACM Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics, ACM Press, 2001, pp. 217-226.
[3] C. Bennis, J.M. Vezien, and G. Iglesias, “Piecewise Surface Flattening for Non-Distorted Texture Mapping,” Computer Graphics, vol. 25, pp. 237-247, 1991.
[4] M. Bertalmio, G. Sapiro, L.-T. Cheng, and S. Osher, A Framework for Solving Surface Differential Equations for Computer Graphics Applications UCLA-CAM report 00-43, Dec. 2000, www.math.ucla.edu.
[5] P. Brodatz, Textures: A Photographic Album for Artists and Designers. Dover Publications, 1966.
[6] B.G. Cumming, E.B. Johnston, and A.J. Parker, Effects of Different Texture Cues on Curved Surfaces Viewed Stereoscopically Vision Research, vol. 33, nos. 5/6, pp. 827-838, 1993.
[7] J.S. De Bonet, “Multiresolution Sampling Procedure for Analysis and Synthesis of Texture Images,” SIGGRAPH '97 Conf. Proc., pp. 361-368, 1997.
[8] J.-M. Dischler, D. Ghazanfarpour, and R. Freydier, Anisotropic Solid Texture Synthesis Using Orthogonal 2D Views Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 17, no. 3, Sept. 1998.
[9] A. Efros and T. Leung, “Texture Synthesis by Non-Parametric Sampling,” Proc. Seventh Int'l Conf. Computer Vision, 1999.
[10] A.A. Efros and W.T. Freeman, "Image Quilting for Texture Synthesis and Transfer," Computer Graphics (Proc. Siggraph 2001), ACM Press, New York, 2001, pp. 341-346.
[11] J.A. Ferwerda, S. Pattanaik, P. Shirley, and D.P. Greenberg, “A Model of Visual Masking for Computer Graphics,” ACM SIGGRAPH '97 Conf. Proc., pp. 143-152, 1997.
[12] A. Girshik, V. Interrante, S. Haker, and T. Lemoine, “Line Direction Matters: An Argument for the Use of Principal Curvature Directions in 3D Line Drawings,” Proc. First Int'l Symp. Non Photorealistic Animation and Rendering (NPAR2000), pp. 43-52, 2000.
[13] J. Goldfeather, Understanding Errors in Approximating Principal Direction Vectors TR01-006, Dept. of Computer Science and Eng., Univ. of Minnesota, Jan. 2001.
[14] G. Gorla, V. Interrante, and G. Sapiro, Growing Fitted Textures IMA Preprint 1748, Feb. 2001.
[15] S. Haker, S. Angenent, A. Tannenbaum, R. Kikinis, G. Sapiro, and M. Halle, “Conformal Surface Parameterization for Texture Mapping,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 6, no. 2, 2000.
[16] P. Hanrahan and P. Haeberli, Direct WYSIWYG Painting and Texturing on 3D Shapes Proc. Computer Graphics (ACM SIGGRAPH), vol. 24, pp. 215-223, Aug. 1990.
[17] D.J. Heeger and J.R. Bergen, “Pyramid-Based Texture Analysis/Synthesis,” SIGGRAPH 95 Conf. Proc., R.L. Cook, ed., pp. 229-238, Aug. 1995.
[18] V. Interrante, H. Fuchs, and S. Pizer, Conveying the 3D Shape of Smoothly Curving Transparent Surfaces via Texture IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 98-117, Mar./Apr. 1997.
[19] V.L. Interrante, “Illustrating Surface Shape in Volume Data via Principal Direction-Driven 3D Line Integral Convolution,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '97, pp. 109-116, Aug. 1997.
[20] V. Interrante and S. Kim, Investigating the Effect of Texture Orientation on the Perception of 3D Shape Proc. Human Vision and Electronic Imaging VI, pp. 330-339, Jan. 2001.
[21] V. Interrante, S. Kim, and H. Hagh-Shenas, Conveying 3D Shape with Texture: Recent Advances and Experimental Findings Proc. Human Vision and Electronic Imaging VII, Jan. 2002.
[22] D.C. Knill, Contour into Texture: The Information Content of Surface Contours and Texture Flow J. Optical Soc. Am., A, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 12-35, Jan. 2001.
[23] B. Lévy and J.L. Mallet, “Non-Distorted Texture Mapping for Sheared Triangulated Meshes,” Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '98 Proc.), M. Cohen, ed., vol. 32, pp. 343-352, July 1998.
[24] A. Li and Q. Zaidi, Perception of Three-Dimensional Shape from Texture Is Based on Patterns of Oriented Energy Vision Research, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 217-242, Jan. 2000.
[25] J. Maillot, H. Yahia, and A. Verroust, “Interactive Texture Mapping,” Proc SIGGRAPH '93, pp. 27-34, 1993.
[26] P. Mamassian and M.S. Landy, Observer Biases in the 3D Interpretation of Line Drawings Vision Research, vol. 38, no. 18, pp. 2817-2832, Sept. 1998.
[27] A.P. Mangan and R.T. Whitaker, Partitioning 3D Surface Meshes Using Watershed Segmentation IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 308-221, Oct.-Dec. 1999.
[28] F. Neyret and M.P. Cani, “Pattern-Based Texturing Revisited,” SIGGRAPH '99 Conf. Proc., pp. 235-242, Aug. 1999.
[29] D.R. Peachey, “Solid Texturing of Complex Surfaces,” Proc. SIGGRAPH 85, vol. 19, pp. 279-286, 1985.
[30] K. Perlin, “An Image Synthesizer,” Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '85 Proc.), B.A. Barsky, ed., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 287-296, July 1985.
[31] D. Piponi and G. Borshukov, Seamless Texture Mapping of Subdivision Surfaces by Model Pelting and Texture Blending Proc. SIGGRAPH 2000, pp. 471-478, 2000.
[32] J. Portilla and E.P. Simoncelli, "A Parametric Texture Model Based on Joint Statistics of Complex Wavelet Coefficients," Int'l J. of Computer Vision, 2000, to appear; currently available on the Web at.
[33] E. Praun, A. Finkelstein, and H. Hoppe, “Lapped Textures,” Siggraph 2000, Computer Graphics Proc., K. Akeley, ed., pp. 465-470, 2000.
[34] P.V. Sander, J. Snyder, S.J. Gortler, and H. Hoppe, Texture Mapping Progressive Meshes Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 2001, pp. 409-416, 2001.
[35] K.A. Stevens, The Visual Interpretation of Surface Contours Artificial Intelligence, vol. 17, nos. 1-3, pp. 47-73, Aug. 1981.
[36] J.T. Todd and R.A. Akerstrom, Perception of Three-Dimensional Form from Patterns of Optical Texture J. Experimental Psychology; Human Perception and Performance, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 242-255, 1987.
[37] G. Turk, “Generating Textures for Arbitrary Surfaces Using Reaction-Diffusion,” Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '91 Proc.), T.W. Sederberg, ed., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 289-298, July 1991.
[38] G. Turk, Texture Synthesis on Surfaces Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 2001, pp. 347-354, 2001.
[39] L.-Y. Wei and M. Levoy, “Fast Texture Synthesis Using Tree-Structured Vector Quantization,” Proc. SIGGRAPH 2000, pp. 479-488, July 2000.
[40] L.-Y. Wei and M. Levoy, Texture Synthesis over Arbitrary Manifold Surfaces Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 2001, pp. 355-360, 2001.
[41] A. Witkin and M. Kass, “Reaction-Diffusion Textures,” Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '91 Proc.), T.W. Sederberg, ed., vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 299-308, July 1991.
[42] S.P. Worley, “A Cellular Texture Basis Function,” SIGGRAPH 96 Conf. Proc., H. Rushmeier, ed., pp. 291-294, Aug. 1996.
[43] L. Ying, A. Hertzmann, H. Biermann, and D. Zorin, Texture and Shape Synthesis on Surfaces Proc. 12th Eurographics Workshop Rendering, June 2001.
[44] S.C. Zhu, Y. Wu, and D. Mumford, “Filters Random Fields and Maximum Entropy(Frame)—Towards a Unified Theory for Texture Modeling,” Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 107-126, 1998.

Index Terms:
Texture synthesis, texture mapping, shape perception, shape representation.
Citation:
Gabriele Gorla, Victoria Interrante, Guillermo Sapiro, "Texture Synthesis for 3D Shape Representation," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 512-524, Oct.-Dec. 2003, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2003.1260745
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.