This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Comparing Simplification and Image-Based Techniques for 3D Client-Server Rendering Systems
April-June 2003 (vol. 9 no. 2)
pp. 226-240

Abstract—A mathematical model is presented for comparing geometric and image-based simplification methods. Geometric simplification reduces the number of polygons in the virtual object and image-based simplification replaces the object with an image. Our model integrates and extrapolates existing accuracy estimates, enabling the comparison of different simplification methods in order to choose the most efficient method in a given situation. The model compares data transfer and rendering load of the methods. Byte size and expected lifetime of simplifications are calculated as a function of the desired visual quality and the position and movement of the viewer. An example result is that, in typical viewing and rendering conditions and for objects with a radius in the order of one meter, imposter techniques can be used at viewing distances above 15 meters. Below that, simplified polygon objects are required and, below one meter distance, the full-resolution virtual object has to be rendered. An electronic version of the model is available on the web.

[1] D.G. Aliaga, “Virtual Objects in the Real World,” Comm. ACM, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 49-54, Mar. 1997.
[2] D. Aliaga et al., “MMR: An Integrated Massive Model Rendering System Using Geometric and Image-Based Acceleration,” Proc. Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics (I3D), pp. 199-206, Apr. 1999, l, May 2002.
[3] D.G. Aliaga and A.A. Lastra, “Automatic Image Placement to Provide a Guaranteed Frame Rate,” Proc. SIGGRAPH, pp. 307-316, 1999, , May 2002.
[4] DesignWorkshop, Artifice Inc., Eugene, Ore., 1999, http:/, May 2002.
[5] R. Azuma and G. Bishop, “A Frequency-Domain Analysis of Head-Motion Prediction,” Proc. SIGGRAPH, pp. 401-408, Aug. 1995,, May 2002.
[6] R.T. Azuma, “A Survey of Augmented Reality,” Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 355-385, 1997, , May 2002.
[7] M.R. Bolin and G.W. Meyer, “A Perceptually Based Adaptive Sampling Algorithm,” Proc. SIGGRAPH, pp. 299-310, July 1998.
[8] A.T. Campbell, “Technical Review: QoS-Aware Middleware for Mobile Multimedia Communications,” Multimedia Tools and Applications, vol. 7, nos. 1-2, pp. 67-82, 1998.
[9] ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 N, Short MPEG-2 description, index.html, May 2002.
[10] J. Chim et al., “Multi-Resolution Model Transmission in Distributed Virtual Environments,” Proc. ACM Symp. Virtual Reality Software and Technology, pp. 25-34, 1998, , May 2002.
[11] P. Cignoni, C. Rocchini, and R. Scopigno, “Metro: Measuring Error on Simplified Surfaces” Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 167-174, June 1998., May 2002.
[12] D. Cline and P.K. Egbert, “Interactive Display of Very Large Textures,” Proc. IEEE Visualization, pp. 343-350, 1998.
[13] D. Cohen-Or, “Model-Based View-Extrapolation for Interactive VR Web-Systems,” Proc. IEEE Computer Graphics Int'l Conf., pp. 104-112, 248, June 1997.
[14] J. Cohen, M. Olano, and D. Manocha, “Appearance-Preserving Simplification,” Proc. SIGGRAPH, pp. 115-122, 1998.
[15] L. Darsa, B. Costa, and A. Varshney, “Walkthroughs of Complex Environments Using Image-Based Simplification,” Computers and Graphics, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 55-69, 1998,, May 2002.
[16] X. Decoret, G. Schaufler, F. Sillion, and J. Dorsey, “Multi-Layered Impostors for Accelerated Rendering,” Proc. Eurographics, Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 61-73, 1999, egmmi, May 2002.
[17] M. Deering, “Geometry Compression,” Proc. SIGGRAPH, pp. 13-20, 1995.
[18] R. Dumont, F. Pellacini, and J.A. Ferwerda, “A Perceptually-Based Texture Caching Algorithm for Hardware-Based Rendering,” Proc. Eurographics Workshop Rendering, and publications.html, 2001.
[19] P. Ebbesmeyer, “Textured Virtual Walls: Achieving Interactive Frame Rates during Walkthroughs of Complex Indoor Environments,” Proc. Virtual Reality Ann. Int'l Symp. (VRAIS '98), pp. 220-227, Mar. 1998.
[20] M. Eck, T. DeRose, T. Duchamp, H. Hoppe, M. Lounsbery, and W. Stuetzle, “Multiresolution Analysis of Arbitrary Meshes,” Technical Report #95-01-02, UW-CSE-95-01-02.PS.Z, 1995.
[21] G. Eckel, “Cliptextures,” IRIS Performer Programmer's Guide, chapter 10, SGI Technical Publications, Silicon Graphics Inc., Mountain View, Calif., http://techpubs.sgi.comlibrary, 1995.
[22] G. Francini, “Surface Texture Estimation of 3D Model Objects,” Panorama project AC092, , 1998.
[23] T.A. Funkhouser and C.H. Séquin, “Adaptive Display Algorithm for Interactive Frame Rates during Visualization of Complex Virtual Environments,” Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '93 Proc.), pp. 247-254, Aug. 1993.
[24] M. Garland and P.S. Heckbert, “Surface Simplification Using Quadric Error Metrics,” Proc. 24th Ann. Conf. Computer Graphics & Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH '97), pp. 209-216, 1997.
[25] M. Garland and P.S. Heckbert, “Simplifying Surfaces with Color and Texture Using Quadric Error Metrics,” Proc. IEEE Visualization '98, pp. 263-269, 542, , 1998.
[26] X. Gu, S. Gortler, H. Hoppe, L. McMillan, B. Brown, and A. Stone, “Silhouette Mapping,” Technical Report TR-1-99, Dept. of Computer Science, Harvard Univ., Mar. 1999,
[27] H. Hoppe, “Progressive Meshes,” SIGGRAPH '96 Proc., pp. 99-108, 1996,
[28] H. Hoppe, “View-Dependent Refinement of Progressive Meshes,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '97, pp. 189-198, 1997.
[29] H. Hoppe, “Smooth View-Dependent Level-of-Detail Control and Its Application to Terrain Rendering,” Proc. IEEE Visualization, pp. 35-42, 1998.
[30] H. Hoppe, “New Quadric Metric for Simplifying Meshes with Appearance Attributes,” Proc. IEEE Visualization '99, pp. 59-66, Oct. 1999,
[31] E. Horvitz and J. Lengyel, “Perception, Attention, and Resources: A Decision-Theoretic Approach to Graphics Rendering,” Proc. 13th Conf. Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI '97), pp. 238-249, Aug. 1997. .
[32] J.H. Kim and A.A. Chien, “Rotating Combined Queueing (RCQ): Bandwidth and Latency Guarantees in Low-Cost, High-Performance Networks,” Proc. 23rd Ann. Int'l Symp. Computer Architecture, pp. 226-236, 1996.
[33] J.J. Koenderink, “What Does the Occluding Contour Tell Us about Solid Shape,” Perception, vol. 13, pp. 321-330, 1984.
[34] J. Lengyel and J. Snyder, “Rendering with Coherent Layers,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '97, pp. 233-242, 1997.
[35] M. Levoy, “Polygon-Assisted JPEG and MPEG Compression of Synthetic Images,” Proc. SIGGRAPH, pp. 21-28, 1995.
[36] P. Lindstrom, D. Koller, L.F. Hodges, W. Ribarsky, N. Faust, and G. Turner, “Level of Detail Management for Real-Time Rendering of Phototextured Terrain,” Technical Report GIT-GVU-95-06, Georgia Inst. of Tech nology, Jan. 1995, edu/gvu/peoplepeter.lindstrom .
[37] P. Lindstrom, D. Koller, W. Ribarsky, L.F. Hodges, N. Faust, and G.A. Turner, “Real-Time, Continuous Level of Detail Rendering of Height Fields,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '96, pp. 109-118, Aug. 1996.
[38] P. Lindstrom and G. Turk, “Image-Driven simplification,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 204-241, 2000, papers.
[39] D. Luebke and B. Hallen, “Perceptually Driven Simplification for Interactive Rendering,” Rendering Techniques, S. Gortler and K. Myszkowski, eds., London: Springer-Verlag, 2001, .
[40] D. Luebke and C. Erikson, “View-Dependent Simplification of Arbitrary Polygonal Environments,” Proc. 24th Ann. Conf. Computer Graphics & Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH '97), pp. 199-208, 1997.
[41] Moving Pictures Expert Group, “ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29 WG11,” 2000, http:/
[42] P.W.C. Maciel and P. Shirley, “Visual Navigation of Large Environments Using Textured Clusters,” Proc. 1995 Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics, pp. 95-102, 1995,
[43] Y. Mann and D. Cohen-Or, “Selective Pixel Transmission for Navigating in Remote Virtual Environments,” Proc. Eurographics '97, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. C201-C206, 1997,
[44] W.R. Mark, “Post-Rendering 3D Image Warping: Visibility, Reconstruction, and Performance for Depth-Image Warping,” doctoral dissertation, UNC Computer Science Technical Report TR99-022, Univ. of North Carolina, Apr. 1999, .
[45] W.R. Mark, L. McMillan, and G. Bishop, “Post-Rendering 3D Warping,” Proc. 1997 Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics, pp. 7-16, Apr. 1997,
[46] A.E.W. Mason and E.H. Blake, “Automatic Hierarchical Level of Detail Optimization in Computer Animation,” Computer Graphics Forum (Eurographics '97 Proc.), vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 191-200, 1997.
[47] L. McMillan and G. Bishop, “Plenoptic Modeling: An Image-Based Rendering System,” Computer Graphics Ann. Conf. Series (SIGGRAPH '95), pp. 39-46, 1995.
[48] L. McMillan, “An Image-Based Approach to Three-Dimensional Computer Graphics,” PhD thesis, Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, UNC Technical Report TR97-013, 1997, diss.pdf.
[49] M. Olano, J. Cohen, M. Mine, and G. Bishop, “Combatting Rendering Latency,” Proc. 1995 Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics, pp. 19-24 and 204, Apr. 1995,
[50] M.M. Oliveira and G. Bishop, “Image-Based Objects,” Proc. Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics (SI3D '99), pp. 191-198, 1999.
[51] P. Padmos and M.V. Milders, “Quality Criteria for Simulator Images: A Lterature Review,” Human Factors, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 727-748, 1992.
[52] R. Pajarola and J. Rossignac, “SQUEEZE: Fast and Progressive Decompression of Triangle Meshes,” Proc. Computer Graphics Int'l (CGI 2000), pp. 173 -182, June 2000.
[53] W. Pasman and F.W. Jansen, “Scheduling Level of Detail with Guaranteed Quality and Cost,” Proc. Web3D Conf., pp. 43-51, Feb. 2002, publ.html.
[54] W. Pasman, A. van der Schaaf, R. Lagendijk, and F.W. Jansen, “Accurate Overlaying for Mobile Augmented Reality,” Computers & Graphics, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 875-881, 1999, publ.html.
[55] W. Pasman, “Low Latency Rendering,” P2.3P2.3.1.ASP, 1999.
[56] W. Pasman and F.W. Jansen, “Realistic Low-Latency Mobile AR Rendering,” Proc. Int'l Symp Virtual and Augmented Architecture (VAA01), pp. 81-92, June 2001, publ.html.
[57] K. Pulli, M. Cohen, T. Duchamp, H. Hoppe, L. Shapiro, and W. Stuetzle, “View-Based Rendering: Visualizing Real Objects from Scanned Range and Color Data,” Rendering Techniques '97 (Proc. Eighth Eurographics Workshop Rendering), pp. 23-34, 1997.
[58] M. Garland, “QSlim 2.0 [Computer Software],” Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, UIUC Computer Graphics Lab, qslim.html, 1999.
[59] M. Ramasubramanian, S.N. Pattanaik, and D.P. Greenberg, “A Perceptually Based Physical Error Metric for Realistic Image Synthesis,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '99, pp. 73-82, 1999.
[60] M. Regan and R. Pose, “Priority Rendering with a Virtual Address Recalculation Pipeline,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '94, Computer Graphics, Ann. Conf. Series, pp. 155-162, July 1994.
[61] T. Riegel, “Coding of PANORAMA 3-D Sequences,”, 1998.
[62] J. Rossignac and P. Borrel, “Multi-Resolution 3D Approximations for Rendering Complex Scenes,” Modeling in Computer Graphics: Methods and Applications, B. Falcidieno and T.L. Kunii, eds., pp. 455-465, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1993.
[63] J. Rossignac, “Edgebreaker: Connectivity Compression for Triangle Meshes,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 47-61, Jan.-Mar. 1999.
[64] G. Schaufler and M. Priglinger, “Efficient Displacement Mapping by Image Warping,” Proc. 10th EUROGRAPHICS Workshop Rendering, pp. 175-186, 2000,
[65] G. Schaufler and W. Stürzlinger, “A Three Dimensional Image Cache for Virtual Reality,” EUROGRAPHICS '96 Proc., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 227-236, Aug. 1996, icache.
[66] W.J. Schroeder, J.A. Zarge, and W.E. Lorensen, “Decimation of Triangle Meshes,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '92, pp. 65-70, 1992, ph/paper/multi97/release/schroededeci.pdf .
[67] J. Shade, D. Lischinski, D.H. Salesin, T. DeRose, and J. Snyder, “Hierarchical Image Caching for Accelerated Walkthroughs of Complex Environments,” Computer Graphics Proc. (SIGGRAPH '96), pp. 75-83, 1996.
[68] J. Shade, S. Gortler, L. He, and R. Szeliski, “Layered Depth Images,” Proc. 25th Ann. Conf. Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '98), pp. 231- 242, 1998.
[69] F.X. Sillion, G. Drettakis, and B. Bodelet, “Efficient Impostor Manipulation for Real-Time Visualization of Urban Scenery,” Proc. Eurographics '97, pp. C207-C218, Sept. 1997, PapersIndex.html.
[70] Stanford 3D Scanning Repository, “Happy Buddha [Computer file],” Dept. of Computer Science, Stanford Univ., 1996, .
[71] J. Torborg and J.T. Kajiya, “Talisman: Commodity Realtime 3D Graphics for the PC,” Computer Graphics Proc., Proc. SIGGRAPH '96, pp. 353-363, 1996. Talisman.
[72] UbiCom, “Ubiquitous Communications: Aiming at a New Generation Systems and Applications for Personal Communication,” interdisciplinary program (DIOC), Delft Univ. of Tech nology, 2001, http:/
[73] Web3D Consortium, “VRML97 International Standard ISO/IEC 14772-1:1997,” 2002,
[74] R.C. Veltkamp, “Shape Matching: Similarity Measures and Algorithms,” 2001, 2001-03.pdf.
[75] B. Watson, A. Friedman, and A. McGaffey, “Using Naming Tme to Evaluate Quality Predictors for Model Simplification,” Proc. ACM Computer Human Interaction (CHI '00), pp. 113-120, 2000.
[76] B.A. Watson, A. Friedman, and A. McGaffey, “Measuring and Predicting Visual Fidelity,” Proc. SIGGRAPH 2001, Computer Graphics Proc., Ann. Conf. Series, pp. 213-220, Aug. 2001, .
[77] G. Wolberg, Digital Image Warping. Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE CS Press, 1990.
[78] J.C. Xia and A. Varshney, “Dynamic View-Dependent Simplification for Polygonal Models,” Proc. Conf. Visualization '96, pp. 327-334, 1996, av_vd_vis.pdf and
[79] H. Yee, S. Pattanaik, and D.P. Greenberg, “Spatiotemporal Sensitivity and Visual Attention for Efficient Rendering of Dynamic Environments,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 39-65, Jan. 2001.

Index Terms:
Real-time rendering, dynamic geometry simplification, imposters, resource load, thin client, mathematical model.
W. Pasman, F.W. Jansen, "Comparing Simplification and Image-Based Techniques for 3D Client-Server Rendering Systems," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 226-240, April-June 2003, doi:10.1109/TVCG.2003.10010
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.