This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
The Classification of Volumetric Display Systems: Characteristics and Predictability of the Image Space
January-March 2002 (vol. 8 no. 1)
pp. 66-75

Abstract—A diverse range of volumetric display systems has been proposed during the last 90 years. In order to facilitate a comparison between the various approaches, the three subsystems that comprise displays of this type are identified and are used as a basis for a classification scheme. The general characteristics of a number of volumetric display system configurations are examined, with emphasis given to issues relating to the predictability of the volume within which images are depicted. Key characteristics of this image space are identified and the complex manner in which they depend upon the display unit subsystems are illustrated for several current volumetric display techniques.

[1] E. Luzy and C. Dupuis, “Procédépour Obtenir des Projections en Relief,” French Patent 461,600, 1912.
[2] B.G. Blundell, A.J. Schwarz, and D.K. Horrell, “Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems: Their Past, Present and Future,” IEE Eng. Science and Education, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 196-200, 1993.
[3] B.G. Blundell and A.J. Schwarz, “Volumetric Three-Dimensional Displays,” McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology, pp. 95-97, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995.
[4] L.D. Sher, “The Oscillating-Mirror Technique for Realizing True 3D,” Stereo Computer Graphics and Other True 3D Display Technologies, D.F. McAllister, ed., pp. 196-213, Princeton Univ. Press, 1993.
[5] B.G. Blundell, A.J. Schwarz, and D.K. Horrell, “The Cathode Ray Sphere: A Prototype System to Display Volumetric Three-Dimensional Images,” Optical Eng., vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 180-186, 1994.
[6] P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Dahlke, M. Lasher, and M. MacDonald, “Laser-Based 3D Volumetric Display System (2nd Generation),” Proc. Conf. Soc. for Information Display (SID '94), 1994.
[7] E.J. Parker and P.A. Wallis, “Three-Dimensional Cathode-Ray Tube Displays,” J. IEE, vol. 95, pp. 371-390, 1948.
[8] E.L. Withey, “Cathode-Ray Tube Adds Third Dimension,” Electronics (Eng. ed.), pp. 81-83, 23 May 1958.
[9] K. Kameyama and K. Ohtomi, “A Shape Modelling System with a Volume Scanning Display and Multisensory Input Device,” Presence, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 104-111, 1993.
[10] E.P. Berlin Jr., “Three-Dimensional Display,” US Patent 4,160,973, 1979.
[11] R. Zito and A.E. Schraeder, “Optical Excitation of Mercury Vapour for the Production of Isolated Fluorescence,” Applied Optics, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 1323-1328, 1963.
[12] J.D. Lewis, C.M. Verber, and R.B. McGhee, “A True Three-Dimensional Display,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 18, pp. 724-732, 1971.
[13] E.A. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R.M. MacFarlane, “A Three-Color, Solid-State Three-Dimensional Display,” Science, vol. 273, pp. 1185-1189, 1994.
[14] J. Fajans, “Luminous Spot Display Device,” US Patent 3,123,711, 1964.
[15] A.J. Schwarz and B.G. Blundell, “Optimisation of a Dot-Graphics Plotting Technique for Volumetric Graphics Displays,” IEEE Computer Graphicsand Applications, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 72-88, May/June 1997.
[16] M. Ruderfer, “Apparatus for Producing Three-Dimensional Visual Patterns,” US Patent 2,749,480, 1956.
[17] R.A. Fryklund, “Three-Dimensional Position Indicating System,” US Patent 2,762,031, 1956.
[18] D.L. MacFarlane, “A Volumetric Three Dimensional Display,” Applied Optics, vol. 33, no. 31, pp. 7453-7457, 1994.
[19] B.G. Blundell and A.J. Schwarz, “Volumetric Three-Dimensional Displays,” McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology, pp. 95-97, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995.
[20] A.J. Schwarz and B.G. Blundell, “Regions of Extreme Image Distortion in Rotating-Screen Volumetric Display Systems,” Computers and Graphics, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 643-652, 1994.
[21] A.J. Schwarz and B.G. Blundell, “Considerations for Accurate Voxel Positioning on a Rotating-Screen Volumetric Display System,” IEE Proc. Optoelectronics, vol. 141, no. 5, pp. 336-344, 1994.
[22] M. Hirsch, “Three Dimensional Display Apparatus,” US Patent 2,967,905, 1961.
[23] R.G. Batchko, “Rotating Flat Screen Fully Addressable Volume Display,” US Patent 5,148,310, 1992.
[24] J.D. Lewis and A.H. Adelman, “Method and Apparatus for Generating Three-Dimensional Patterns,” US Patent 3,609,707, 1971.
[25] A.J. Schwarz and B.G. Blundell, “Considerations Regarding Voxel Brightness in Volumetric Displays Utilizing Two-Step Excitation Processes,” Optical Eng., vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 2818-2823, 1993.

Index Terms:
Volumetric, 3D, visualization, display system, graphics.
Citation:
Barry G. Blundell, Adam J. Schwarz, "The Classification of Volumetric Display Systems: Characteristics and Predictability of the Image Space," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 66-75, Jan.-March 2002, doi:10.1109/2945.981852
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.