This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Two-Level Volume Rendering
July-September 2001 (vol. 7 no. 3)
pp. 242-252

Abstract—In this paper, we present a two-level approach for volume rendering, i.e., two-level volume rendering, which allows for selectively using different rendering techniques for different subsets of a 3D data set. Different structures within the data set are rendered locally on an object-by-object basis by either DVR, MIP, surface rendering, value integration (x-ray-like images), or nonphotorealistic rendering. All the results of subsequent object renderings are combined globally in a merging step (usually compositing in our case). This allows us to selectively choose the most suitable technique for depicting each object within the data while keeping the amount of information contained in the image at a reasonable level. This is especially useful when inner structures should be visualized together with semitransparent outer parts, similar to the focus-plus-context approach known from information visualization. We also present an implementation of our approach which allows us to explore volumetric data using two-level rendering at interactive frame rates.

[1] J.T. Kajiya and B.P. Von Herzen, "Ray Tracing Volume Densities," Proc. Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '84), vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 165-174, July 1984.
[2] M. Levoy, “Display of Surfaces from Volume Data,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 29-37, 1988.
[3] T. He et al., "Generation of Transfer Functions with Stochastic Search Techniques," Proc. Visualization 96, ACM Press, New York, 1996, pp. 227-234, 489.
[4] C.L. Bajaj, V. Pascucci, and D.R. Schikore, "The Contour Spectrum," Proc. Visualization 97, ACM Press, New York, 1997, pp. 167-173, 539.
[5] J. Marks et al., "Design Galleries: A General Approach to Setting Parameters for Computer Graphics and Animation," Computer Graphics Proc., Ann. Conf. Series, ACM Siggraph, ACM Press, New York, 1997, pp. 389-400.
[6] G. Kindlmann and J.W. Durkin, “Semi-Automatic Generation of Transfer Functions for Direct Volume Rendering,” Proc. 1998 Volume Visualization Symp., pp. 79-86, Oct. 1998.
[7] A.H. König and M.E. Gröller, “Mastering Transfer Function Specification by Using Volumepro Technology,” Proc. Spring Conf. Computer Graphics and Its Applications 2001, 2001.
[8] J.K. Udupa and G.T. Herman, eds., 3D Imaging in Medicine, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1991.
[9] U. Tiede, T. Schiemann, and K.H. Höhne, “High Quality Rendering of Attributed Volume Data,” Proc. Visualization '98, pp. 255-262, 1998.
[10] K.J. Zuiderveld, A.H.J. Koning, and M.A. Viergever, “Techniques for Speeding Up High-Quality Perspective Maximum Intensity Projection,” Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 15, pp. 507-517, 1994.
[11] G. Sakas, M. Grimm, and A. Savopoulos, “Optimized Maximum Intensity Projection,” Proc. Fifth EUROGRAPHICS Workshop Rendering Techniques, pp. 55-63, 1995.
[12] L. Mroz, A. König, and M.E. Gröller, “Maximum Intensity Projection at Warp Speed,” Computers and Graphics, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 343-352, 2000.
[13] Y. Sato, N. Shiraga, S. Nakajima, S. Tamura, and R. Kikinis, “LMIP: Local Maximum Intensity Projection—A New Rendering Method for Vascular Visualization,” J. Computer Assisted Tomography, vol. 22, no. 6, 1998.
[14] W.E. Lorensen and H.E. Cline, “Marching Cubes: A High Resolution 3D Surface Construction Algorithm,” Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '87 Proc.), vol. 21, pp. 163-169, 1987.
[15] K. Kreeger and A. Kaufmann, “Mixing Translucent Polygons with Volumes,” Proc. IEEE Visualization '99, pp. 191-198, 1999.
[16] L. Mroz, R. Wegenkittl, and M.E. Gröller, “Mastering Interactive Surface Rendering for Java-Based Diagnostic Applications,” Proc. IEEE Visualization 2000, pp. 437-440, 2000.
[17] L.M. Sobierajski and A.E. Kaufman, “Volumetric Ray Tracing,” Proc. 1994 Symp. Volume Visualization, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994, pp. 11-18.
[18] D. Ebert and P. Rheingans, “Volume Illustration: Non-Photographic Rendering of Volume Models,” Proc. IEEE Visualization 2000, pp. 195-202, 2000.
[19] B. Csebfalvi, L. Mroz, H. Hauser, A. König, and M.E. Gröller, “Fast Visualization of Object Contours by Non-Photorealistic Volume Rendering,” Proc. EUROGRAPHICS 2001, accepted for publication.
[20] V. Interrante, H. Fuchs, and S. Pizer, "Illustrating Transparent Surfaces with Curvature-Directed Strokes," Proc. Visualization '96 Conf., pp. 211-218, 1996.
[21] L. Mroz, “Real-Time Volume Visualization on Low-End Hardware,” PhD thesis, Vienna Univ. of Technology, Austria, 2001.
[22] P. Lacroute and M. Levoy, "Fast Volume Rendering Using a Shear-Warp Factorization of the Viewing Transformation," Proc. Siggraph 94, ACM Press, New York, pp. 451-458.
[23] L. Neumann, B. Csébfalvi, A. König, and M.E. Gröller, “Gradient Estimation in Volume Data Using 4D Linear Regression,” Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. C-351-C-357, 2000.
[24] H. Hauser, L. Mroz, G.-I. Bischi, M.E. Gröller, “Two-Level Volume Rendering—Fusing MIP and DVR,” Proc. IEEE Visualization 2000, pp. 211-218, 2000.
[25] C. Grebogi, E. Ott, and J.A. Jorke, “Chaos, Strange Attractors, and Fractal Basin Boundaries in Nonlinear Dynamics,” Science, vol. 238, pp. 256-261, 1987.
[26] H.N. Agiza, G.-I. Bischi, and M. Kopel, “Multistability in a Dynamic Cournot Game with Three Oligopolists,” Math. and Computers in Simulation, vol. 51, pp. 63-90, 1999.
[27] C. Mira, L. Gardini, A. Barugola, and J.C. Cathala, Chaotic Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Noninvertible Maps. Singapore: World Scientific, 1996.
[28] Sun Microsystems, “Java,” http:/java.sun.com/, 2001.
[29] H. Hauser, L. Mroz, G.-I. Bischi, M.E. Gröller, “Two-Level Volume Rendering,” http://www.VRVis.at/vis/researchtwo-level /, 2001.

Index Terms:
Visualization, volume rendering, dynamical systems, medical applications.
Citation:
Helwig Hauser, Lukas Mroz, Gian Italo Bischi, M. Eduard Gröller, "Two-Level Volume Rendering," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 242-252, July-Sept. 2001, doi:10.1109/2945.942692
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.