This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Hierarchical Model for Real Time Simulation of Virtual Human Crowds
April-June 2001 (vol. 7 no. 2)
pp. 152-164

Abstract—This paper describes a model for simulating crowds of humans in real time. We deal with a hierarchy composed of virtual crowds, groups, and individuals. The groups are the most complex structure that can be controlled in different degrees of autonomy. This autonomy refers to the extent to which the virtual agents are independent of user intervention and also the amount of information needed to simulate crowds. Thus, depending on the complexity of the simulation, simple behaviors can be sufficient to simulate crowds. Otherwise, more complicated behavioral rules can be necessary and, in this case, it can be included in the simulation data in order to improve the realism of the animation. We present three different ways for controlling crowd behaviors: 1) by using innate and scripted behaviors, 2) by defining behavioral rules, using events and reactions, and 3) by providing an external control to guide crowd behaviors in real time. The two main contributions of our approach are: the possibility of increasing the complexity of group/agent behaviors according to the problem to be simulated and the hierarchical structure based on groups to compose a crowd.

[1] R.A. Arkin, “Integrating Behavioral, Perceptual and World Knowledge in Reactive Navigation,” Designing Autonomous Agents, P. Maes, ed., pp. 105-122, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1990.
[2] M.A. Arbib and H.B. Lee, “Anural Visuomotor Coordination for Detour Behaviour: From Retina to Motor Schemas,” From Animals to Animats II, J.-A. Mayer, H.L. Roitblat, and S.W. Wilson, eds., Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1993.
[3] B. Blumberg and T. Galyean, “Multi-Level Direction of Autonomous Creatures for Real-Time Virtual Environments,” SIGGRAPH—Computer Graphics Proc., pp. 47-54, 1995.
[4] R. Boulic, T. Capin, Z. Huang, P. Kalra, B. Lintermann, N. Magnenat-Thalmann, L. Moccozet, T. Molet, I. Pandzic, K. Saar, A. Schmitt, J. Shen, and D. Thalmann, “The HUMANOID Environment for Interactive Animation of Multiple Deformable Human Characters,” Proc. EUROGRAPHICS '95, pp. 337-348, Aug. 1995.
[5] R. Boulic, Z. Huang, and D. Thalmann, “Goal Oriented Design and Correction of Articulated Figure Motion with the TRACK System,” J. Computer and Graphics, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 443-452, Oct. 1994.
[6] E. Bouvier, E. Cohen, and L. Najman, “From Crowd Simulation to Airbag Deployment: Particle Systems, a New Paradigm of Simulation,” J. Electronic Imaging, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 94-107, Jan. 1997.
[7] D. Brogan and J. Hodgins, “Group Behaviours for Systems with Significant Dynamics,” Autonomous Robots, vol. 4, pp. 137-153, 1997.
[8] D.C. Brogan, R.A. Metoyer, and J.K. Hodgins, “Dynamically Simulated Characters in Virtual Environments,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 58-69, Sept. 1998.
[9] DIVE,http://www.sics.sedive/, 2000.
[10] L.A. Drogou and J. Ferber, “Multi-Agent Simulation as a Tool for Studying Emergent Processes in Societies,” Proc. Simulating Societies: The Computer Simulation of Social Phenomena, N. Gilbert and J. Doran, eds., 1994.
[11] eRENA,http://www.nada.kth.se/erenaindex.html, 2000.
[12] N. Farenc, S.R. Musse, E. Schweiss, M. Kallmann, O. Aune, R. Boulic, and D. Thalmann, “A Paradigm for Controlling Virtual Humans in Urban Environment Simulations,” special issue on Intelligent Virtual Environments, 1999.
[13] S. Giroux, “Open Reflective Agents,” Intelligent Agents Vol. II, Agent Theories, Architectures, and Languages, M. Wooldridge, J.P. Muller, and M. Tambe, eds., pp. 315-330, Springer-Verlag, 1996.
[14] M. Kallmann and D. Thalmann, “Modeling Objects for Interaction Tasks,” Proc. Eurographics Workshop Animation and Simulation, 1998.
[15] M.J. Mataric, “Learning to Behave Socially,” From Animals to Animats: Proc. Int'l Conf. Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, D. Cliff, P. Husbands, J.-A. Meyer, and S. Wilson, eds., pp. 453-462, 1994.
[16] J.A. Meyer and A. Guillot, “From SAB90 to SAB94: Four Years of Animat Research,” Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, 1994.
[17] S.R. Musse and D. Thalmann, “A Model of Human Crowd Behavior: Group Inter-Relationship and Collision Detection Analysis,” Proc. Workshop Computer Animation and Simulation of Eurographics '97, Sept. 1997.
[18] S.R. Musse, C. Babski, T. Capin, and D. Thalmann, “Crowd Modelling in Collaborative Virtual Environments,” Proc. ACM Symp. Virtual Reality and Simulation Techniques (VRST '98), 1998.
[19] H. Noser and D. Thalmann, “The Animation of Autonomous Actors Based on Production Rules,” Proc. Computer Animation '96, pp. 47-57, Geneva Switzerland, June 1996.
[20] R. Parent, “Notes on Computer Animation: 'Computer Animation: Algorithms and Techniques',” http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~parent/book outline.html, 2000.
[21] K. Perlin and A. Goldberg, "Improv: A System for Scripting Interactive Actors in Virtual Worlds," Proc. Siggraph 96, ACM Press, New York, 1996, pp. 205-216.
[22] C. Reynolds, “Flocks, Herds, and Schools: A Distributed Behavioral Model,” Proc. SIGGRAPH 1987, Computer Graphics, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 25-34, 1987.
[23] C. Reynolds, “Steering Behaviors for Autonomous Characters,” Proc. Game Developers Conf., 1999.
[24] E. Schweiss, S.R. Musse, and F. Garat, “An Architecture to Guide Crowds Based on Rule-Based Systems,” Proc. Autonomous Agents '99, 1999.
[25] X. Tu and D. Terzopoulos, "Artificial Fishes: Physics, Locomotion, Perception, Behavior," Proc. Siggraph 94, ACM, New York, July 1994, pp. 43-50.
[26] M. Treiber, A. Hennecke, and D. Helbing, “Microscopic Simulation of Congested Traffic,” Proc. Traffic and Granular Flow '99: Social Traffic, and Granular Dynamics, 1999.
[27] AntZ,http:/www.antz.com, 2000.
[28] Bugs Life,http:/bugslife.com, 2000.

Index Terms:
Crowd motion, degrees of autonomy, reactive behaviors, behavioral animation, synthetic autonomous agents, virtual human crowds.
Citation:
Soraia Raupp Musse, Daniel Thalmann, "Hierarchical Model for Real Time Simulation of Virtual Human Crowds," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 152-164, April-June 2001, doi:10.1109/2945.928167
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.