This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
The Prioritized-Layered Projection Algorithm for Visible Set Estimation
April-June 2000 (vol. 6 no. 2)
pp. 108-123

AbstractPrioritized-Layered Projection (PLP) is a technique for fast rendering of high depth complexity scenes. It works by estimating the visible polygons of a scene from a given viewpoint incrementally, one primitive at a time. It is not a conservative technique, instead PLP is suitable for the computation of partially correct images for use as part of time-critical rendering systems. From a very high level, PLP amounts to a modification of a simple view-frustum culling algorithm, however, it requires the computation of a special occupancy-based tessellation and the assignment to each cell of the tessellation a solidity value, which is used to compute a special ordering on how primitives get projected. In this paper, we detail the PLP algorithm, its main components, and implementation. We also provide experimental evidence of its performance, including results on two types of spatial tessellation (using octree- and Delaunay-based tessellations), and several datasets. We also discuss several extensions of our technique.

[1] D. Bartz, M. Meißner, and T. Hüttner, “Extending Graphics Hardware for Occlusion Queries in OpenGL,” Proc. 1998 SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Workshop Graphics Hardware, pp. 97-104, Aug. 1998.
[2] E. Catmull, “A Subdivision Algorithm for Computer Display of Curved Surfaces,” PhD thesis, Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of Utah, Dec. 1974.
[3] J. Clark, "Hierarchical Geometric Models for Visible Surface Algorithms," Comm. ACM, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 547-554, 1976.
[4] D. Cohen-Or, G. Fibich, D. Halperin, and E. Zadicario, “Conservative Visibility and Strong Occlusion for Viewspace Partitioning of Densely Occluded Scenes,” Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 243-253, 1998.
[5] J. Comba, J.T. Klosowski, N. Max, J.S.B. Mitchell, C.T. Silva, and P.L. Williams, “Fast Polyhedral Cell Sorting for Interactive Rendering of Unstructured Grids,” Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 369-376, Sept. 1999.
[6] S. Coorg and S. Teller, "Real-Time Occlusion Culling for Models with Large Occluders," Proc. 1997 Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics, pp. 83-90,Providence, R.I., ACM SIGGRAPH, Apr. 1997, .
[7] S. Coorg and S. Teller, “Temporally Coherent Conservative Visibility,” Proc. 12th Ann. ACM Symp. Computational Geometry, pp. 78-87, 1996.
[8] M. de Berg, M. van Kreveld, M. Overmars, and O. Schwarzkopf, Computational Geometry: Algorithms and Applications. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1997.
[9] D. Dobkin and S. Teller, “Computer Graphics,” Handbook of Discrete and Computational Geometry, J.E. Goodman and J. O'Rourke, eds., chapter 42, pp. 779-796. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press LLC, 1997.
[10] S.E. Dorward, “A Survey of Object-Space Hidden Surface Removal,” Int'l J. Computational Geometry Applications, vol. 4, pp. 325-362, 1994.
[11] J.D. Foley,A. van Dam,S.K. Feiner,, and J.F. Hughes,Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice,Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley, 1990.
[12] T. Funkhouser and C. Sequin, “Adaptive Display Algorithm for Interactive Frame Rates During Visualization of Complex Virtual Environments,” Proc. SIGGRAPH '93, pp. 247-254, 1993.
[13] N. Greene and M. Kass, "Hierarchical Z-Buffer Visibility," Computer Graphics Proc. Ann. Conf. Series, pp. 231-240, 1993.
[14] M. Held, J.T. Klosowski, and J.S.B. Mitchell, “Evaluation of Collision Detection Methods for Virtual Reality Fly-Throughs,” Proc. Seventh Canadian Conf. Computational Geometry, pp. 205-210, 1995.
[15] P.M. Hubbard, "Approximating Polyhedra with Spheres for Time-Critical Collision Detection," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 179-210, July 1996.
[16] J.T. Klosowski, M. Held, J.S.B. Mitchell, H. Sowizral, and K. Zikan, Efficient Collision Detection Using Bounding Volume Hierarchies of k-dops IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 21-36, Jan.-Mar. 1998.
[17] M. Meißner, D. Bartz, T. Hüttner, G. Müller, and J. Einighammer, “Generation of Subdivision Hierarchies for Efficient Occlusion Culling of Large Polygonal Models,” Technical Report WSI-99-13, ISSN 0946-3852, 1999.
[18] J.S.B. Mitchell, D.M. Mount, and S. Suri, "Query-Sensitive Ray Shooting," Proc. 10th Ann. ACM Symp. Computational Geometry, pp. 359-368, June 1994. (To appear, Int'l J. Computational Geometry&Applications)
[19] J.S.B. Mitchell, D.M. Mount, and S. Suri, “Query-Sensitive Ray Shooting,” Int'l J. Computational Geometry Applications, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 317-347, Aug. 1997,
[20] B. Paul and B. Bederson, “Togl—A Tk OpenGL Widget,” .
[21] J. Rohlf and J. Helman, "IRIS Performer: A High Performance Multiprocessing Toolkit for Real-Time 3D Graphics," Computer Graphics Proc. Ann. Conf. Series (Proc. Siggraph '94), A. Glassner, ed., pp. 381-395, July 1994.
[22] H. Samet, Applications of Spatial Data Structures. Addison-Wesley, 1990.
[23] N. Scott, D. Olsen, and E. Gannet, “An Overview of the Visualize fx Graphics Accelerator Hardware,” The Hewlett-Packard J., pp. 28-34, May 1998.
[24] K. Severson, “VISUALIZE Workstation Graphics for Windows NT,” HP product literature.
[25] C.T. Silva, J.S.B. Mitchell, and P. Williams, “An Interactive Time Visibility Ordering Algorithm for Polyhedral Cell Complexes,” Proc. ACM/IEEE Volume Visualization Symp. '98, pp. 87-94, Nov. 1998.
[26] S. Teller and C.H. Sequin, "Visibility Preprocessing for Interactive Walkthroughs," Computer Graphics (Proc. Siggraph '91), vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 61-69, 1991.
[27] P. Williams, “Visibility Ordering Meshed Polyhedra,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 103-126, 1992.
[28] H. Zhang, “Effective Occlusion Culling for the Interactive Display of Arbitrary Models,” PhD thesis, Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1998.
[29] H. Zhang, D. Manocha, T. Hudson, and K.E. Hoff III, "Visibility Culling Using Hierarchical Occlusion Maps," Proc. Conf. SIGGRAPH '97, pp. 77-88,Los Angeles, ACM Computer Graphics Ann. Conf. Series, Aug. 1997, .

Index Terms:
Visibility, time-critical rendering, occlusion culling, visible set, spatial tessellation.
James T. Klosowski, Cláudio T. Silva, "The Prioritized-Layered Projection Algorithm for Visible Set Estimation," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 108-123, April-June 2000, doi:10.1109/2945.856993
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.