This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Accelerated Isosurface Extraction in Time-Varying Fields
April-June 2000 (vol. 6 no. 2)
pp. 98-107

Abstract—For large time-varying data sets, memory and disk limitations can lower the performace of visualization applications. Algorithms and data structures must be explicitly designed to handle these data sets in order to achieve more interactive rates. The Temporal Branch-on-Need Octree (T-BON) extends the three-dimensional branch-on-need octree for time-varying isosurface extraction. This data structure minimizes the impact of the I/O bottleneck by reading from disk only those portions of the search structure and data necessary to construct the current isosurface. By performing a minimum of I/O and exploiting the hierarchical memory found in modern CPUs, the T-BON algorithm achieves high performance isosurface extraction in time-varying fields. This paper extends earlier work on the T-BON data structure by including techniques for better memory utilization, out-of-core isosurface extraction, and support for nonrectilinear grids. Results from testing the T-BON algorithm on large data sets show that its performance is similar to that of the three-dimensional branch-on-need octree for static data sets while providing substantial advantages for time-varying fields.

[1] W.E. Lorensen, “Marching through the Visible Man,” Proc. IEEE Visualization '95, pp. 368-373, Oc. 1995.
[2] U. Tiede, T. Schiemann, and K.H. Höhne, “High Quality Rendering of Attributed Volume Data,” Proc. Visualization '98, pp. 255-262, 1998.
[3] J.M. Favre, “Towards Efficient Visualization Support for Single-Block and Multi-Block Datasets,” Proc. Visualization 1997, pp. 423-428, Oct. 1997.
[4] P. Heermann, "Production Visualization for the ASCI One TeraFLOPS Machine," Proc. Visualization 98, IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., Oct. 1998, pp. 459-462.
[5] M. Lanzagorta et al., "Three Dimensional Visualization of Microstructures," Proc. IEEE Visualization, IEEE Computer Soc. Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1998.
[6] C. Monks et al., "Three Dimensional Visualization of Proteins in Cellular Interactions," Proc. Visualization '96, ACM Press, New York, pp. 363-366.
[7] Y. Chiang and C.T. Silva, I/O Optimal Isosurface Extraction Proc. IEEE Visualization '97, R. Yagel and H. Hagen, eds., 1997.
[8] Y. Chiang, C.T. Silva, and W.J. Schroeder, “Interactive Out-of-Core Isosurface Extraction,” Proc. Visualization 1998, pp. 167-174, Oct. 1998.
[9] P.M. Sutton and C.D. Hansen, Isosurface Extraction in Time-Varying Fields Using a Temporal Branch-on-Need Tree (T-BON) Proc. IEEE Visualization '99, D. Ebert, M. Gross, and B. Hamann, eds., pp. 147-154, Oct. 1999.
[10] W.E. Lorensen and H.E. Cline, “Marching Cubes: A High Resolution 3D Surface Construction Algorithm,” Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '87 Proc.), vol. 21, pp. 163-169, 1987.
[11] G. Wyvill, C. McPheeters, and B. Wyvill, “Data Structure for Soft Objects,” The Visual Computer, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 227-234, 1986.
[12] J. Wilhelms and A. Van Gelder, "Octrees for Faster Isosurface Generation," ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 11, no. 3, July 1992, pp. 201-227.
[13] Y. Livnat, H. Shen, and C.R. Johnson, "A Near Optimal Isosurface Extraction Algorithm Using the Span Space," IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 2, no. 1, Mar. 1996, pp. 73-84.
[14] H. Shen, C.D. Hansen, Y. Livnat, and C.R. Johnson, “Isosurfacing in Span Space with Utmost Efficiency (ISSUE),” Proc. IEEE Visualization '96, pp. 287-294, 1996.
[15] P. Cignoni, P. Marino, C. Montani, E. Puppo, and R. Scopigno, “Speeding Up Isosurface Extraction Using Interval Trees,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 158-170, Apr.-June 1997.
[16] T. Itoh and K. Koyamada, “Automatic Isosurface Propagation by Using an Extrema Graph and Sorted Boundary Cell Lists,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 319-327, Dec. 1995.
[17] T. Itoh, Y. Yamaguchi, and K. Koyamada, “Volume Thinning for Automatic Isosurface Propagation,” Proc. IEEE Visualization '96, pp. 303-310, 1996.
[18] C.L. Bajaj, V. Pascucci, and D.R. Schikore, “Fast Isocontouring for Improved Interactivity,” Proc. ACM Symp. Volume Visualization '96, 1996.
[19] M. Kreveld, R. Oostrum, C.L. Bajaj, V. Pascucci, and D.R. Schikore, “Contour Trees and Small Seed Sets for Isosurface Traversal,” Proc. 13th ACM Symp. Computational Geometry, pp. 212-219, 1997.
[20] C. Weigle and D.C. Banks, “Extracting Iso-Valued Features in 4-Dimensional Scalar Fields,” Proc. 1998 Symp. Volume Visualization, pp. 103-110, Oct. 1998.
[21] H. Shen, “Isosurface Extraction in Time-Varying Fields Using a Temporal Hierarchical Index Tree,” Proc. Visualization 1998, pp. 159-164, Oct. 1998.
[22] P.M. Sutton, C.D. Hansen, H. Shen, and D. Schikore, “A Case Study of Isosurface Extraction Algorithm Performance,” Proc. Joint Eurographics-IEEE TCVG Symp. Visualization, to appear, May 2000.
[23] M.B. Cox and D. Ellsworth, "Application-Controlled Demand Paging for Out-of-Core Visualization," Proc. Visualization 97, ACM Press, New York, Oct. 1997, pp. 235-244.
[24] G. Sakas, M. Grimm, and A. Savopoulos, “Optimized Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP),” Proc. Eurographics Rendering Workshop 1995, June 1995.
[25] S. Parker et al., "Interactive Ray Tracing for Isosurface Rendering," Proc. Visualization 98, CD-ROM, ACM Press, New York, Oct. 1998.
[26] S. Parker, M. Parker, Y. Livnat, P.-P. Sloan, C. Hansen, and P. Shirley, Interactive Ray Tracing for Volume Visualization IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 238-250, July-Sept. 1999.

Index Terms:
Isosurface, time-dependent scalar field visualization, multiresolution methods, octree, bricking, unstructured grid visualization, out-of-core visualization.
Philip M. Sutton, Charles D. Hansen, "Accelerated Isosurface Extraction in Time-Varying Fields," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 98-107, April-June 2000, doi:10.1109/2945.856992
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.