This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Interactive Volume Navigation
July-September 1998 (vol. 4 no. 3)
pp. 243-256

Abstract—Volume navigation is the interactive exploration of volume data sets by "flying" the viewpoint through the data, producing a volume rendered view at each frame. We present an inexpensive perspective volume navigation method designed to be run on a PC platform with accelerated 3D graphics hardware. The heart of the method is a two-phase perspective raycasting algorithm that takes advantage of the coherence inherent in adjacent frames during navigation. The algorithm generates a sequence of approximate volume-rendered views in a fraction of the time that would be required to compute them individually. The algorithm handles arbitrarily large volumes by dynamically swapping data within the current view frustum into main memory as the viewpoint moves through the volume. We also describe an interactive volume navigation application based on this algorithm. The application renders gray-scale, RGB, and labeled RGB volumes by volumetric compositing, allows trilinear interpolation of sample points, and implements progressive refinement during pauses in user input.

[1] S. Adelson and C. Hansen, "Fast Stereoscopic Images with Ray-Traced Volume Rendering," Proc. 1994 Symp. Volume Visualization, pp. 3-10 and p. 125, Oct. 1994.
[2] R. Avila et al., "VolVis: A Diversified Volume Visualization System," Proc. Visualization '94, IEEE Computer Soc. Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994, pp. 31-38.
[3] M.L. Brady, W.E. Higgins, K. Ramaswamy, and R. Srinivasan, "Interactive Navigation Inside 3D Radiological Images," 1995 IEEE Biomedical Visualization Symp., pp. 33-40 and p. 85, Oct. 1995.
[4] M.L. Brady, K. K. Jung, H. T. Nguyen, and T. Q. Nguyen, "Two-Phase Perspective Ray Casting for Interactive Volume Navigation," Visualization '97, pp. 183-189 and p. 541, Oct. 1997.
[5] B. Cabral, N. Cam, and J. Foran, “Accelerated Volume Rendering and Tomographic Reconstruction Using Texture Mapping Hardware,” Proc. 1994 Symp. Volume Visualization, pp. 91-98, 1994.
[6] R.A. Drebin, L. Carpenter, and P. Hanrahan, “Volume Rendering,” Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '88 Proc.), no. 22, pp. 65-74, 1988.
[7] T. He and A. Kaufman, "Fast Stereo Volume Rendering," Proc. Visualization '96, pp. 49-56, Oct. 1996.
[8] L. Hong, A. Kaufman, Y. Wei, A. Viswambharan, M. Wax, and Z. Liang, "3D Virtual Colonoscopy," Proc. 1995 IEEE Biomedical Visualization Symp., pp. 26-32, Oct. 1995.
[9] L. Hong, S. Muraki, A. Kaufman, D. Bartz, and T. He, "Virtual Voyage: Interactive Navigation In The Human Colon," Computer Graphics, pp. 27-34, Aug. 1997. ACM/SIGGRAPH Press.
[10] K. Kreeger, I. Bitter, F. Dachille, B. Chen, and A. Kaufman, "Adaptive Perspective Ray Casting," To appear in Proc. Symp. Volume Visualization,Research Triangle Park, N.C., Oct. 1998.
[11] M. Levoy, “Display of Surfaces from Volume Data,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 29-37, 1988.
[12] M. Levoy, "Volume Rendering by Adaptive Refinement," Visual Computing, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 2-7, Feb. 1990.
[13] M. Levoy, “Efficient Ray Tracing of Volume Data,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 245-261, July 1990.
[14] W.E. Lorensen, “Marching through the Visible Man,” Proc. IEEE Visualization '95, pp. 368-373, Oc. 1995.
[15] W.E. Lorensen and H.E. Cline, “Marching Cubes: A High Resolution 3D Surface Construction Algorithm,” Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '87 Proc.), vol. 21, pp. 163-169, 1987.
[16] W. Lorensen, F. Jolesz, and R. Kikinis, "The Exploration of Cross-Sectional Data with a Virtual Endoscope." R. Satava and K. Morgan, eds., Interactive Technology and the New Medical Paradigm for Health Care, pp. 221-230.Washington D.C.: IOS Press, 1995.
[17] K.L. Novins, F.X. Sillion, and D.P. Greenberg, "An Efficient Method for Volume Rendering Using Perspective Projection," Computer Graphics, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 285-288, Nov. 1990.
[18] T. Porter and T. Duff,“Compositing digital images,” Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH’84 Proc.), H. Christiansen, ed., vol. 18, pp. 253-259, July 1984.
[19] K. Ramaswamy and W.E. Higgins, "Endoscopic Exploration and Measurement in 3D Radiological Images," SPIE Medical Imaging 1996: Image Processing, vol. 2,710, pp. 511-523, Feb. 1996.
[20] A. Van Gelder and K. Kim, “Direct Volume Rendering with Shading via Three-Dimensional Textures,” Proc. ACM/IEEE Symp. Volume Visualization, pp. 23-30, Oct. 1996.
[21] D. Vining, D. Gelfand, and R. Bechtold, E. Scharling, E. Grishaw, and R. Shifrin, "Technical Feasibility of Colon Imaging with Helical CT and Virtual Reality," Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Roentgen Ray Society,New Orleans, Apr. 1994.
[22] J. Wilhelms and A. Van Gelder, "A Coherent Projection Approach for Direct Volume Rendering," Computer Graphics, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 275-283, July 1991.
[23] R. Yagel, D. Reed, A. Law, P.-W. Shih, and N. Shareef, "Hardware Assisted Volume Rendering of Unstructured Grids by Incremental Slicing," Proc. 1996 Symp. Volume Visualization, pp. 55-62 and p. 101, Oct. 1996.
[24] K. Zuiderveld, A. Koning, and M. Viergever, "Acceleration of Ray-Casting Using 3D Distance Transforms," Proc. Visualization Biological Computing, vol. 1,808, pp. 324-335,Chapel Hill, NC, Oct. 1992.

Index Terms:
Volume navigation, volume rendering, 3D medical imaging, scientific visualization, texture mapping.
Martin L. Brady, Kenneth K. Jung, H.t. Nguyen, Thinh PQ Nguyen, "Interactive Volume Navigation," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 243-256, July-Sept. 1998, doi:10.1109/2945.722298
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.