This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Image Composition Schemes for Sort-Last Polygon Rendering on 2D Mesh Multicomputers
September 1996 (vol. 2 no. 3)
pp. 202-217

Abstract—In a sort-last polygon rendering system, the efficiency of image composition is very important for achieving fast rendering. In this paper, the implementation of a sort-last rendering system on a general purpose multicomputer system is described. A two-phase sort-last-full image composition scheme is described first, and then many variants of it are presented for 2D mesh message-passing multicomputers, such as the Intel Delta and Paragon. All the proposed schemes are analyzed and experimentally evaluated on Caltech's Intel Delta machine for our sort-last parallel polygon renderer. Experimental results show that sort-last-sparse strategies are better suited than sort-last-full schemes for software implementation on a general purpose multicomputer system. Further, interleaved composition regions perform better than coherent regions. In a large multicomputer system, performance can be improved by carefully scheduling the tasks of rendering and communication. Using 512 processors to render our test scenes, the peak rendering rate achieved on a 262,144 triangle dataset is close to 4.6 million triangles per second which is comparable to the speed of current state-of-the-art graphics workstations.

[1] T. Lee et al., "Image Composition Methods for Sort—Last Polygon Rendering on 2-D Mesh Architectures," 1995 Parallel Rendering Symp. Proc., IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., Oct. 1995, pp 55-62.
[2] S. Molnar and H. Fuchs, "Advanced Raster Graphics Architecture," Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice, second edition, J.D. Foley et al., eds., pp. 855-923Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1990.
[3] T.W. Crockett, "Design Considerations for Parallel Graphics Libraries," Proc. Intel Supercomputer Users Group, pp. 3-14, June 1994.
[4] S. Whitman, Multiprocessor Methods for Computer Graphics Rendering, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, London, 1992.
[5] J.H. Clark, “The Geometry Engine: A VLSI Geometry System for Graphics,” Computer Graphics, vol. 16, pp. 127-133, July 1982.
[6] S. Molnar et al., "A Sorting Classification of Parallel Rendering," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 23-32, July 1994.
[7] C. Mueller, “The Sort-First Rendering Architecture for High-Performance Graphics,” Proc. ACM Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics, pp. 75-84, 1995.
[8] M. Cox, "Algorithms for Parallel Rendering," PhD dissertation, Dept. of Computer Science, Princeton Univ., May 1995.
[9] T.W. Crockett and T. Orloff, “Parallel Polygon Rendering for Message-Passing Architectures,” IEEE Parallel and Distributed Technology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 17-28, Feb. 1994.
[10] S. Whitman, “Dynamic Load Balancing for Parallel Polygon Rendering,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 41-48, July 1994.
[11] D. Roble, "A Load-Balanced Parallel Scanline Z-buffer Algorithm for the iPSC Hypercube," Proc. First Int'l Conf. Pixim 88, pp. 177-192, Editions Hermes, Paris, 1988.
[12] D. Ellsworth, “A New Algorithm for Interactive Graphics on Multicomputers,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 33-40, July 1994.
[13] Kubota Pacific Computer, Denali Technical Overview, version 1.0, Mar. 1993.
[14] Evans and Sutherland Computer Corporation, Freedom Series Technical Report, Oct. 1992.
[15] S. Molnar, "Image-Composition Architectures for Real-time Image Generation," PhD dissertation, Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Oct. 1991.
[16] D. Fussel and B.D. Rathi, "A VLSI-Oriented Architecture for Real-time Raster Display of Shaded Polygons," Proc. Graphics Interface '82, pp. 373-380.
[17] C.D. Shaw, "A VLSI Architecture for Image Composition," Advanced in Graphics Hardware III, pp. 183-199, Springer-Verlag, 1988.
[18] R. Heiland, "Object-Oriented Parallel Polygon Rendering," Proc. Gviz '94, pp. 19-26,Richland, Wash., Tri-Cities ACM-SIGGRAPH chapter, Sept. 1994.
[19] J. Li and S. Miguet, "Z-buffer on a Transputer-Based Machine," Proc. Sixth Distributed Memory Computing Conf., pp. 315-322, IEEE, 1991.
[20] M. Cox and P. Hanrahan, "A Distributed Snooping Algorithm for Pixel Merging," IEEE Parallel and Distributed Technology, pp. 30-36, Summer 1994.
[21] K.-L. Ma et al., "Parallel Volume Rendering Using Binary-Swap Compositing," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 59-68, July 1994.
[22] R. J. Karia, "Load Balancing of Parallel Volume Rendering with Scattered Decomposition," Proc. Scalable High Performance Computing Conf., May 1994.
[23] C.M. Wittenbrink, "Designing Optimal Parallel Volume Rendering Algorithms," PhD thesis, Univ. of Washington, 1993.
[24] C.M. Wittenbrink and M. Harrington, "A Scalable MIMD Volume Rendering Algorithms," Proc. Eighth Int'l Parallel Processing Symp., pp. 916-920,Cancun, Mexico, Apr. 1994.
[25] P. Li and D.W. Curkendall, "Parallel Three Dimensional Perspective Rendering," Proc. Second European Workshop Parallel Computing, pp. 320-331, Mar. 1992.
[26] P. Li, W.H. Duquette, and D.W. Curkendall, "Remote Interactive Visualization and Analysis (RIVA) Using Parallel Supercomputers," Proc. 1995 Parallel Rendering Symp., pp. 71-78, ACM, Oct. 1995.
[27] F. Ortega, C. Hansen, and J. Ahrens, "Fast Data-Parallel Polygon Rendering," Proc. Supercomputing '93, pp. 709-78, IEEE, 1993.
[28] C.D. Hansen, M. Krogh, and W. White, "Massively Parallel Visualization: Parallel Rendering," Proc. Seventh SIAM Conf. Parallel Processing for Scientific Computing, pp. 790-795, SIAM, Feb. 1995
[29] M. Barnett, R. Littlefield, D.G. Payne, and R. van de Geijn, "Global combine on mesh architectures with wormhole routing," Seventh Int'l Parallel Processing Symp., IEEE, Newport Beach, Calif., Apr. 1993.
[30] E. Haines, "A Proposal for Standard Graphics Environments," IEEE Computer Graphics and Application, pp. 3-5, July 1987.
[31] R. Littlefield, "Characterizing and Tuning Communications Performance on the Touchstone Delta and iPSC/860," Proc. 1992 Ann. Conf. Intel Supercomputer Users Group, pp. 309-313, Oct. 1992.
[32] Y.C. Tay, "A Performance Analysis of Object-Parallel Rendering and Composition," Research Report no. 569, Dept. of Mathematics, National Univ. of Singapore, May 1993.

Index Terms:
Sort-last-full, sort-last-sparse, polygon rendering, image composition, message-passing multicomputer system.
Citation:
Tong-Yee Lee, C.s. Raghavendra, John B. Nicholas, "Image Composition Schemes for Sort-Last Polygon Rendering on 2D Mesh Multicomputers," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 202-217, Sept. 1996, doi:10.1109/2945.537304
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.