This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Volume Rendering of DCT-Based Compressed 3D Scalar Data
March 1995 (vol. 1 no. 1)
pp. 29-43

Abstract—This paper proposes a scheme to perform volume rendering from compressed scalar data. Instead of decompressing the entire data set before rendering, blocks of data are decompressed as needed. Discrete cosine transform based compression technique is used to illustrate the method. The data is partitioned into overlapping blocks to permit local rendering and allow easy parallelization. Compression by factor of 20 to 30 produces rendering virtually indistinguishable from rendering using the original uncompressed data. Speedup is obtained by making use of spatial homogeneity detected in the transform domain. Rendering time using the proposed approach is less than that of direct rendering from the entire uncompressed data. The proposed method thus offers an attractive option to reduce storage, computation, and transmission overhead of otherwise huge data sets.

[1] K.K. Chan,C.C. Lau,K.S. Chuang,, and C.A. Morioka,“Visualization and volumetric compression,” Image Capture, Formatting, and Display, vol. SPIE1444, pp. 250-255, 1991.
[2] P. Ning and L. Hesselink,“Vector quantization for volume rendering,” 1992 Workshop Volume Visualization, pp. 69-74, Oct. 1992.
[3] P. Ning and L. Hesselink,“Fast volume rendering of compressed data,” Visualization 1993, pp. 11-18, Oct. 1993.
[4] S. Dunne,S. Napel,, and B. Rutt,“Fast reprojection of volume data,” Proc. First Conf. Visualization Biomedical Computing, pp. 11-18, 1990.
[5] T. Malzbender,“Fourier volume rendering,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 12, pp. 233-250, July 1993.
[6] M. Levoy,“Volume rendering using the Fourier projection-slice theorem,” Proc. Graphics Interface’92, pp. 61-69, May 1992.
[7] T. Totsuka and M. Levoy,“Frequency domain volume rendering,” Computer Graphics, vol. 27, pp. 271-278, Aug. 1993.
[8] T.-C. Chiueh,T. He,A. Kaufman,, and H. Pfister,“Compression domain volume rendering,” Tech. Report TR.94.01.04, State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, 1994.
[9] S. Muraki,“Volume data and wavelet transforms,” IEEE CG&A, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 50-56, 1993.
[10] S. Muraki,“Multiscale 3D edge representation of volume data by a DoG wavelet,” Proc. 1994 Symp. on Volume Visualization, pp. 35-42, 1994.
[11] R.A. Drebin, L. Carpenter, and P. Hanrahan, “Volume Rendering,” Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '88 Proc.), no. 22, pp. 65-74, 1988.
[12] C. Upson and M. Keeler,“V-BUFFER: Visible volume rendering,” Computer Graphics, vol. 22, pp. 59-64, Aug. 1988.
[13] L. Westover,“Footprint evaluation for volume rendering,” Proc. SIGGRAPH’90 (Dallas, Texas, Aug. 6-10, 1990). In Computer Graphics, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 367-376, 1990.
[14] J. Wilhelms and A. Van Gelder, "A Coherent Projection Approach for Direct Volume Rendering," Computer Graphics, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 275-283, July 1991.
[15] D. Laur and P. Hanrahan, Hierarchical Splatting: A Progressive Refinement Algorithm for Volume Rendering Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 285-288, 1991.
[16] M. Levoy, “Display of Surfaces from Volume Data,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 29-37, 1988.
[17] P. Sabella,“A rendering algorithm for visualizing 3D scalar fields,” Computer Graphics, vol. 22, pp. 51-58, Aug. 1988.
[18] M. Levoy, “Efficient Ray Tracing of Volume Data,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 245-261, July 1990.
[19] M. Levoy, "Volume Rendering by Adaptive Refinement," Visual Computing, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 2-7, Feb. 1990.
[20] J. Danskin and P. Hanrahan,“Fast algorithms for volume ray tracing,” 1992 Workshop Volume Visualization, pp. 91-98, Oct. 1992.
[21] P. Lacroute and M. Levoy, "Fast Volume Rendering Using a Shear-Warp Factorization of the Viewing Transformation," Proc. Siggraph 94, ACM Press, New York, pp. 451-458.
[22] D. Ney,E. Fishman,D. Magid,, and R. Drebin,“Volume rendering of computed tomography data: Principles and techniques,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, pp. 24-32, Mar. 1990.
[23] J.F. Blinn, "Light Reflection Functions for Simulation of Clouds and Dusty Surfaces," Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '82 Proc.), vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 21-29, July 1982.
[24] J.T. Kajiya and B.P. Von Herzen, "Ray Tracing Volume Densities," Proc. Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '84), vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 165-174, July 1984.
[25] T. Porter and T. Duff,“Compositing digital images,” Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH’84 Proc.), H. Christiansen, ed., vol. 18, pp. 253-259, July 1984.
[26] G.K. Wallace, "The JPEG Still Compression Standard," Comm. ACM, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 30-44, Apr. 1991.
[27] D.A. Huffman,“A method for the construction of minimum redundancy codes,” Proc. IRE, vol. 40, pp. 1098-1101, 1962.
[28] W.M. Hsu,“Segmented ray casting for data parallel volume rendering,” 1993 Parallel Rendering Symp., pp. 7-14, Oct. 1993.
[29] K.-L. Ma, J. Painter, C. Hansen, and M. Krogh, “A Data Distributed, Parallel Algorithm for Ray-Traced Volume Rendering,” Proc. 1993 Parallel Rendering Symp., 1993.
[30] E. Camahort and I. Chakravarty,“Integrating volume data analysis and rendering on distributed memory architectures,” 1993 Parallel Rendering Symp., pp. 89-96, Oct. 1993.
[31] A.N. Netravali and B.G. Haskell,Digital Pictures: Representation and Compression, Plenum Press, 1988.
[32] C. Loeffler,A. Ligtenberg,, and G. S. Moschytz,“Practical fast 1D DCT algorithms with 11 multiplications,” ICASSP, pp. 988-991, 1989.
[33] A.K. Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing. Prentice Hall, 1989.
[34] M.M. Yeung,B.L. Yeo,S.P. Liou,, and A. Banihashemi,“Three-dimensional image registration for Spiral CT Angiography,” Computer Vision and Patten Recognition, pp. 423-429, June 1994.
[35] H. Lee,Y. Kim,A.H. Rowberg,, and E.A. Riskin,“Statistical distributions of DCT coefficients and their applications to aninterframe compression algorithm for 3D medical images,” IEEE Trans. Medical Imaging, vol. 12, pp. 478-485, Sept. 1993.
[36] A. Nosratinia,N. Mohsenian,M.T. Orchard,, and B. Liu,“Interslice coding of magnetic resonance images using deformable triangular patches,” IEEE Int’l Conf. Image Processing, pp. 892-902, Nov. 1994.

Index Terms:
3D discrete cosine transform, 3D DCT, volumetric compression, volume rendering from compressed data.
Boon-Lock Yeo, Bede Liu, "Volume Rendering of DCT-Based Compressed 3D Scalar Data," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 29-43, March 1995, doi:10.1109/2945.468390
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.