This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Visualizing Network Data
March 1995 (vol. 1 no. 1)
pp. 16-28

Abstract—Networks are critical to modern society, and a thorough understanding of how they behave is crucial to their efficient operation. Fortunately, data on networks is plentiful; by visualizing this data, it is possible to greatly improve our understanding. Our focus is on visualizing the data associated with a network and not on simply visualizing the structure of the network itself. We begin with three static network displays; two of these use geographical relationships, while the third is a matrix arrangement that gives equal emphasis to all network links. Static displays can be swamped with large amounts of data; hence we introduce direct-manipulation techniques that permit the graphs to continue to reveal relationships in the context of much more data. In effect, the static displays are parameterized so that interesting views may easily be discovered interactively. The software to carry out this network visualization is called SeeNet.

[1] A. Becker and S. Cleveland, “Brushing Scatterplots,” Technometrics, vol 29, no. 2, pp. 127-142, 1987.
[2] S.G. Eick, “Data Visualization Sliders,” Proc. ACM UIST, pp. 119-120, 1994.
[3] Ben Shneiderman,“Direct Manipulation: A Step Beyond Programming Languages,” IEEE Computer, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 57-68, 1983.
[4] Jacques Bertin,Graphics and Graphic Information-Processing,Berlin: Walter de Gruyter Co., 1981.
[5] J. Beddow, “Shape Coding of Multidimensional Data on a Microcomputer Display,” Proc. Visualization '90, pp. 238-246, 1990.
[6] Mark Brown and John Hershberger,“Color and Sound in Algorithm Animation,” IEEE Computer, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 52-63, 1991.
[7] Richard A. Becker and Allan R. Wilks,“Final Report: Network Traffic Analysis Project,” BBN Subcontract agreement #20510, Feb. 1993.
[8] Michael F. Schwartz and David C.M. Wood,“Discovering Shared Interests Using Graph Analysis,” Communications of the ACM, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 78-89, 1993.
[9] E.R. Gansner, E. Koutsojos, S.C. North, and K.-P. Vo, “A Technique for Drawing Directed Graphs,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 19, pp. 214–230, 1993.
[10] S. Eick and G.J. Wills, “Navigating Large Networks with Hierarchies,” Proc. Visualization '93, pp. 204-210, 1993.
[11] Richard A. Becker and Allan R. Wilks,“Maps in S,” AT&T Bell Laboratories Statistics Technical Report, anonymous ftp at research.att.com:stat/doc/93-2, 1993.
[12] B. Stroustrup, The C++ Programming Language. Addison-Wesley, 1986.
[13] Visualization Group, Vz Visualization Library: User’s Guide Version 1.0, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Jan. 1995.
[14] Richard A. Becker,John M. Chambers,, and Allan R. Wilks,The New S Language,Pacific Grove, Calif.: Wadsworth&Brooks/Cole, 1988.
[15] Kim M. Fairchild,Steven E. Poltrock,George W. Furnas,“Three-dimensional Graphic Representations of Large Knowledge Bases,” Cognitive Science and Its Applications for Human Computer Interaction, pp. 201-233, 1988.
[16] M. Sarkar and M. Brown, “Graphical Fisheye Views,” Comm. ACM, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 73-84, 1994.
[17] Frances Newbery Paulisch, The Design of an Extendible Graph Editor, Dissertation for the Department of Computer Science, University of Karlsruhe, Jan. 1992.
[18] Anthony R. Unwin,B. Sloan, and Graham J. Wills,“Interactive Graphical Methods for Trade Flows,” Proceedings of New Techniques and Technologies for Statistics, to appear.
[19] National Center for Supercomputing Applications, “A Visualization Study of Networking,” video tape, Donna Cox and Robert Patterson, Co-Principal Investigators, University of Illi nois, 1991.
[20] Stephen M. Casner,“A Task-Analytic Approach to the Automated Design of Graphics Presentations,” ACM Trans. on Graphics, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 111-151, 1991.
[21] M.P. Consens, F.Ch. Eigler, M.Z. Hasan, A.O. Mendelzon, E.G. Noik, A.G. Ryman, and D. Vista, “Architecture and Applications of the Hy+Visualization System,” IBM Systems J., vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 458-476, 1994.
[22] M. Consens and A. Mendelzon, "Visualizing and Querying Software Structures," Proc. 14th Int'l Conf. Software Eng., pp. 138-156,Melbourne, Australia, IEEE CS Press, 1992.
[23] M.P. Consens and M.Z. Hasan,“Supporting Network Management through Declaratively Specified Data Visualizations,” Proc. IEEE/IFIP Third Int’l Symp. on Integrated Network Management, III, pp. 725-738, April 1993.
[24] Hideik Koike,“The Role of Another Spatial Dimension in Software Visualization,” ACM Trans. on Information Systems, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 266-286, 1993.
[25] Sara Bly,“Sound and Computer Information Presentation,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Technical Report UCRL-53282, March 1982.
[26] J.J. Mezrich,S. Frysinger,, and R. Slivjanovski,“Dynamic Representation of Multivariate Time Series Data,” J. of the Am. Statistical Assoc., vol. 79, pp. 34-40, 1984.
[27] William Gaver,“The SonicFinder: An Interface that Uses Auditory Icons,” Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 4, pp. 67-94, 1989.
[28] William Gaver,“Synthesizing Auditory Icons,” CHI 93 Conf. Proceedings, pp. 228-235, 1993.
[29] Richard A. Becker,William S. Cleveland,, and Allan R. Wilks,“Dynamic Graphics For Data Analysis,” Statistical Science, vol. 2, pp 355-395, 1987.
[30] W.S. Cleveland and M.E. McGill, eds., Dynamic Graphics for Statistics,Wadsworth, Belmont, Calif., 1988.
[31] Richard A. Becker,Stephen G. Eick,Eileen O. Miller,, and Allan R. Wilks,“Dynamic Graphical Analysis of Maps—31 minute videotape,” Bell Laboratories ITV Facility,Holdel, N.J., March 1989.
[32] Richard A. Becker,Stephen G. Eick,Eileen O. Miller,, and Allan R. Wilks,“Network Visualization,” 24th Int’l Symp. on Spatial Data Handling Proceedings,Zurich, Switzerland, pp. 285-294, July 1990.
[33] B. Shneiderman, "Dynamic Queries for Visual Information Seeking," IEEE Software, Nov./Dec. 1994, pp. 70-77.
[34] K. Koffka, Principles of Gestalt Psychology. New York: Harcourt-Brace, 1935. C. Ahlberg, and B. Shneiderman, “Visual Information Seeking: Tight Coupling of Dynamic Query Filters with Starfield Displays,” Proc. Conf. Human Factors and Computing Systems (CHI '94), pp. 313-317, 479-480, 1994.
[35] Jerome H. Friedman and Lawrence C. Rafsky,“Fast algorithms for multivariate lining and planning,” Proc. of Computer Science and Statistics: 8th Annual Symp. on the Interface, pp. 124-136, 1979.
[36] William S. Cleveland and Robert McGill,“The Visual Decoding of Quantitative Information on Graphical Displays of Data,” J. of the Royal Statistical Soc., Series A, vol. 150, pp. 195-229, 1987.
[37] Robert Sekuler and Randolph Blake,Perception, Third ed., New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill, Inc, 1994.

Index Terms:
Network visualization, parameter focusing, network data analysis, interactive graphics, data analysis, direct manipulation.
Citation:
Richard A. Becker, Stephen G. Eick, Allan R. Wilks, "Visualizing Network Data," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 16-28, March 1995, doi:10.1109/2945.468391
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.