The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.03 - March (2014 vol.25)
pp: 706-716
Taehong Kim , Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon
Seong Hoon Kim , Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon
Jinyoung Yang , Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon
Seong-eun Yoo , Daegu University, Gyungsan
Daeyoung Kim , Korea Advanced Institute of Science and technology, Daejon
ABSTRACT
The ZigBee tree routing is widely used in many resource-limited devices and applications, since it does not require any routing table and route discovery overhead to send a packet to the destination. However, the ZigBee tree routing has the fundamental limitation that a packet follows the tree topology; thus, it cannot provide the optimal routing path. In this paper, we propose the shortcut tree routing (STR) protocol that provides the near optimal routing path as well as maintains the advantages of the ZigBee tree routing such as no route discovery overhead and low memory consumption. The main idea of the shortcut tree routing is to calculate remaining hops from an arbitrary source to the destination using the hierarchical addressing scheme in ZigBee, and each source or intermediate node forwards a packet to the neighbor node with the smallest remaining hops in its neighbor table. The shortcut tree routing is fully distributed and compatible with ZigBee standard in that it only utilizes addressing scheme and neighbor table without any changes of the specification. The mathematical analysis proves that the 1-hop neighbor information improves overall network performances by providing an efficient routing path and distributing the traffic load concentrated on the tree links. In the performance evaluation, we show that the shortcut tree routing achieves the comparable performance to AODV with limited overhead of neighbor table maintenance as well as overwhelms the ZigBee tree routing in all the network conditions such as network density, network configurations, traffic type, and the network traffic.
INDEX TERMS
Routing, Routing protocols, Zigbee, Standards, Traffic control, Topology,IEEE 802.15.4, ZigBee, tree routing, shortcut tree routing (STR), neighbor table, MANET, WSN
CITATION
Taehong Kim, Seong Hoon Kim, Jinyoung Yang, Seong-eun Yoo, Daeyoung Kim, "Neighbor Table Based Shortcut Tree Routing in ZigBee Wireless Networks", IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol.25, no. 3, pp. 706-716, March 2014, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2014.9
REFERENCES
[1] D. Han and J. Lim, "Smart Home Energy Management System Using IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electronics, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 1403-1410, Oct. 2010.
[2] S. Chen et al., "A Reliable Transmission Protocol for ZigBee-Based Wireless Patient Monitoring," IEEE Trans. Information Technology in Biomedicine, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 6-16, Nov. 2012.
[3] P. Yi, A. Iwayemi, and C. Zhou, "Developing ZigBee Deployment Guideline under WiFi Interference for Smart Grid Applications," IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 110-120, Nov. 2011.
[4] ZigBee Alliance, ZigBee Specification, 2009.
[5] I. Chakeres, "AODVjr, AODV Simplified," ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Comm. Rev., vol. 6, pp. 100-101, 2002.
[6] T. Clausen and P. Jacquet, "Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR)," Internet Request for Comments 3626, Oct. 2003.
[7] C.E. Perkins and P. Bhagwat, "Highly Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV) for Mobile Computers," SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 24, pp. 234-244, 1994.
[8] C.E. Perkins and E.M. Royer, "Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing," Proc. IEEE Workshop Mobile Computer Systems and Applications, Feb. 1999.
[9] D.B. Johnson and D.A. Maltz, "Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks," Mobile Computing, vol. 353, pp. 153-181, 1996.
[10] V.D. Park and M.S. Corson, "A Highly Adaptive Distributed Routing Algorithm for Mobile Wireless Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '97, 1997.
[11] W. Kiess and M. Mauve, "A Survey on Real-World Implementations of Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks," Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 324-339, Apr. 2007.
[12] B.-R. Chen, K.-K. Muniswamy-Reddy, and M. Welsh, "Ad-Hoc Multicast Routing on Resource-Limited Sensor Nodes," Proc. Second Int'l Workshop Multi-Hop Ad Hoc Networks from Theory to Reality, 2006.
[13] A. Wheeler, "Commercial Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks Using ZigBee," IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 70-77, Apr. 2007.
[14] O. Gnawali, R. Fonseca, K. Jamieson, D. Moss, and P. Levis, "Collection Tree Protocol," Proc. Seventh ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), 2009.
[15] J. Ko et al., "Connecting Low-Power and Lossy Networks to the Internet," IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 96-101, Apr. 2011.
[16] P. Levis et al., "TinyOS: An Operating System for Wireless Sensor Networks," Ambient Intelligence, Springer-verlag, 2005.
[17] T. Kim, D. Kim, N. Park, S. Yoo, and T.S. Lopez, "Shortcut Tree Routing in ZigBee Networks," Proc. Int'l Symp. Wireless Pervasive Computing (ISWPC), 2007.
[18] A.V. Aho, J.E. Hopcroft, and J.D. Ullman, "On Finding Lowest Common Ancestors in Trees," SIAM J. Computing, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 115-132, 1976.
[19] H. Lu et al., "A Distributed and Efficient Flooding Scheme Using 1-Hop Information in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 658-671, Apr. 2007.
[20] Agbaria et al., "Efficient and Reliable Dissemination in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks by Location Extrapolation," J. Computer Networks and Comm., 2011.
[21] D.S. Johnson, J.K. Lenstra, and H.G.R. Kan, "The Complexity of the Network Design Problem," Networks, vol. 8, pp. 279-285, 1978.
[22] P. Merz and S. Wolf, "TreeOpt: Self-Organizing, Evolving P2P Overlay Topologies Based on Spanning Trees," Proc. Comm. in Distributed Systems Conf. (KiVS), 2007.
[23] The Network Simulator, http://www.isi.edu/nsnamns, 2013.
[24] M.S. Pan, C.-H. Tsai, and Y.C. Tseng, "The Orphan Problem in ZigBee Wireless Networks," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 1573-1584, Nov. 2009.
[25] Y. Huang et al., "Distributed Throughput Optimization for ZigBee Cluster-Tree Networks," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 513-520, Mar. 2012.
[26] J.W. Hui and D. Culler, "The Dynamic Behavior of a Data Dissemination Protocol for Network Programming at Scale," Proc. Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, 2004.
52 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool