The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.02 - Feb. (2013 vol.24)
pp: 381-391
Dan Li , Tsinghua University, Beijing
Jiong Chen , Peking University, Beijing
Chuanxiong Guo , Microsoft Research Asia, Beijing
Yunxin Liu , Microsoft Research Asia, Beijing
Jinyu Zhang , Peking University, Beijing
Zhili Zhang , University of Minnesota, Minnapolis
Yongguang Zhang , Microsoft Research Asia, Beijing
ABSTRACT
Most IP-geolocation mapping schemes [14], [16], [17], [18] take delay-measurement approach, based on the assumption of a strong correlation between networking delay and geographical distance between the targeted client and the landmarks. In this paper, however, we investigate a large region of moderately connected Internet and find the delay-distance correlation is weak. But we discover a more probable rule—with high probability the shortest delay comes from the closest distance. Based on this closest-shortest rule, we develop a simple and novel IP-geolocation mapping scheme for moderately connected Internet regions, called GeoGet. In GeoGet, we take a large number of webservers as passive landmarks and map a targeted client to the geolocation of the landmark that has the shortest delay. We further use JavaScript at targeted clients to generate HTTP/Get probing for delay measurement. To control the measurement cost, we adopt a multistep probing method to refine the geolocation of a targeted client, finally to city level. The evaluation results show that when probing about 100 landmarks, GeoGet correctly maps 35.4 percent clients to city level, which outperforms current schemes such as GeoLim [16] and GeoPing [14] by 270 and 239 percent, respectively, and the median error distance in GeoGet is around 120 km, outperforming GeoLim and GeoPing by 37 and 70 percent, respectively.
INDEX TERMS
Delay, Geology, Internet, Correlation, IP networks, Accuracy, Databases, moderately connected Internet, IP geolocation, GeoGet
CITATION
Dan Li, Jiong Chen, Chuanxiong Guo, Yunxin Liu, Jinyu Zhang, Zhili Zhang, Yongguang Zhang, "IP-Geolocation Mapping for Moderately Connected Internet Regions", IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol.24, no. 2, pp. 381-391, Feb. 2013, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2012.136
REFERENCES
[1] H. Xie et al., "P4P: Provider Portal for (P2P) Applications," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '08, 2008.
[2] V. Aggarwal, A. Feldmann, and C. Scheideler, "Can ISPs and P2P Users Cooperate for Improved Performance?" ACM SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 29-40, 2007.
[3] R. Bindal et al., "Improving Traffic Locality in BitTorrent via Biased Neighbor Selection," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '06), 2006.
[4] K. Xu et al., "LBMP: A Logarithm-Barrier-Based Multipath Protocol for Internet Traffic Management," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 476-488, Mar. 2011.
[5] China Internet Network Informationi Center, http:/www.cnnic. net.cn/, 2012.
[6] Whois.net, http:/www.whois.net/, 2012.
[7] Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: (IP Address to Latitude/Longitude), http://cello.cs.uiuc.edu/cgi-bin/slammip2ll /, 2011.
[8] D. Moore et al. "Where in the World Is Netgeo.Caida.Org?," Proc. Int'l Networking Conf. (INET '00), 2000.
[9] Quova, http:/www.quova.com, 2012.
[10] IP138, www.ip138.com, 2012.
[11] IP Address Geolocation to Identify Website Visitor's Geographysical Location, http:/www.ip2location.com/. 2012.
[12] IPInfoDb, http:/ipinfodb.com/, 2012.
[13] IANA-Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, http:/www. iana.org/, 2012.
[14] V. Padmanabhan and L. Subramanian, "An Investigation of Geographic Mapping Techniques for Internet Hosts," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '01, 2001.
[15] A. Ziviani et al. "Improving the Accuracy of Measurement-Based Geographic Location of Internet Hosts," Computer Networks, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 503-523, 2005.
[16] B. Gueye et al., "Constraint-Based Geolocation of Internet Hosts," Proc. ACM Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC '04), 2004.
[17] E. Katz-Bassett et al. "Towards IP Geolocation Using Delay and Topology Measurements," Proc. ACM Internet Measurement Conf. (IMC '06), 2006.
[18] B. Wong, I. Stoyanov, and E. Sirer, "Octant: A Comprehensive Framework for the Geolocalization of Internet Hosts," Proc. USENIX Conf. Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI '07), 2007.
[19] T. Vincenty, "Direct and Inverse Solutions of Geodesics on the Ellipsoid with Application of Nested Equations," Survey Rev., vol. 22, no. 176, pp. 88-93, 1975.
[20] B. Eriksson et al., "A Learning-Based Approach for IP Geolocation," Proc. Int'l Conf. Passive and Active Measurement (PAM '10), 2010.
[21] C. Guo et al., "Mining the Web and the Internet for Accurate IP Address Geolocations," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '09, 2009.
[22] I. Poese et al., "IP Geolocation Databases: Unreliable?" ACM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 53-56, Apr. 2011.
[23] J. Muir and P. Oorschot, "Internet Geolocation: Evasion and Counterevasion," ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 42, no. 1, 2009.
[24] S. Laki, P. Matray, and P. Haga, "Spotter: A Model Based Active Geolocation Service," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '11, 2011.
[25] M. Arif, S. Karunasekera, and S. Kulkarni, "GeoWeight: Internet Host Geolocation Based on a Probability Model for Latency Measurements," Proc. 33rd Australasian Conf. Computer Science (ACSC '10), 2010.
[26] B. Gueye, S. Uhlig, and S. Fdida, "Investigating the Imprecision of IP Block-Based Geolocation," Proc. Int'l Conf. Passive and Active Network Measurement (PAM '07), 2007.
[27] B. Gueye et al., "Leveraging Buffering Delay Estimation for Geolocation of Internet Hosts," Proc. Int'l IFIP-TC6 Conf. Networking Technologies, Services, and Protocols (Networking '06), 2006.
[28] Y. Wang et al., "Towards Street-Level Client-Independent IP Geolocation," Proc. USENIX Conf. Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI '11), 2011.
[29] Geolocation: Core To The Local Space And Key To Click-Fraud Detection, http://searchengineland.comgeolocation-core-to-the-local-space-and-key-to-click-fraud-detection-11922 , 2012.
[30] T. Ng and H. Zhang, "Predicting Internet Network Distance with Coordinates-Based Approaches," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '02, 2002.
[31] F. Dabek et al., "Vivaldi: A Decentralized Network Coordinate System," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '04, 2004.
7 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool