The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.01 - Jan. (2013 vol.24)
pp: 19-31
Haifeng Wu , Yunnan University of Nationalities, Kunming
Yu Zeng , Yunnan Universityof Nationalities, Kunming
Jihua Feng , Yunnan University of Nationalities, Kunming
Yu Gu , Yunnan University of Nationalities, Kunming
In order to enhance the efficiency of radio frequency identification (RFID) and lower system computational complexity, this paper proposes three novel tag anticollision protocols for passive RFID systems. The three proposed protocols are based on a binary tree slotted ALOHA (BTSA) algorithm. In BTSA, tags are randomly assigned to slots of a frame and if some tags collide in a slot, the collided tags in the slot will be resolved by binary tree splitting while the other tags in the subsequent slots will wait. The three protocols utilize a dynamic, an adaptive, and a splitting method to adjust the frame length to a value close to the number of tags, respectively. For BTSA, the identification efficiency can achieve an optimal value only when the frame length is close to the number of tags. Therefore, the proposed protocols efficiency is close to the optimal value. The advantages of the protocols are that, they do not need the estimation of the number of tags, and their efficiency is not affected by the variance of the number of tags. Computer simulation results show that splitting BTSA's efficiency can achieve 0.425, and the other two protocols efficiencies are about 0.40. Also, the results show that the protocols efficiency curves are nearly horizontal when the number of tags increases from 20 to 4,000.
Protocols, Heuristic algorithms, Radiation detectors, Algorithm design and analysis, Estimation, Binary trees, Radiofrequency identification, passive, RFID, anticollision, ALOHA, estimation of the number of tags
Haifeng Wu, Yu Zeng, Jihua Feng, Yu Gu, "Binary Tree Slotted ALOHA for Passive RFID Tag Anticollision", IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol.24, no. 1, pp. 19-31, Jan. 2013, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2012.120
[1] E. Welbourne, L. Battle, G. Cole, K. Gould, K. Rector, S. Raymer, M. Balazinska, and G. Borriello, "Building the Internet of Things Using RFID: The RFID Ecosystem Experience," IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 48-55, May/June 2009.
[2] "13.56 MHz ISM Band Class 1 Radio Frequency Identification Tag Interface Specification: Recommended Standard," technical report, Version 1.0.0, Auto-ID Center, 2003.
[3] Information Technology - Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) for Item Management - Part 6: Parameters for Air Interface Communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz, Int'l Standard ISO/IEC 18000-6, 2004.
[4] Information Technology - Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) for Item Management Part 6: Parameters for Air Interface Communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz, Amendment1: Extension with Type C and Update of Types A and B, Int'l Standard ISO/IEC 18000-6, 2006.
[5] EPC Radio-Frequency Identification Protocols Class-1 Generation-2 UHF RFID Protocol for Communications at 860 MHz-960 MHz, Version 1.1.0 Draft1. EPCglobal, Inc, 2005.
[6] F.C. Schoute, "Dynamic Frame Length Aloha," IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. C-31, no. 4, pp. 565-568, Apr. 1983.
[7] H. Vogt, "Efficient Object Identification with Passive RFID Tags," Proc. Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing, pp. 98-113, 2002.
[8] S.R. Lee, S.D. Joo, and C.W. Lee, "An Enhanced Dynamic Framed ALOHA Algorithm for RFID Tag Identification," Proc. Int'l Conf. Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services, pp. 1-5, 2005.
[9] W.T. Chen, "An Accurate Tag Estimate Method for Improving the Performance of an RFID Anticollision Algorithm Based on Dynamic Frame Length ALOHA," IEEE Trans. Automation Science and Eng., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 9-15, Jan. 2009.
[10] H. Wu and Y. Zeng, "Bayesian Tag Estimate and Optimal Frame Length for Anti-Collision ALOHA RFID System," IEEE Trans. Automation Science and Eng., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 963-969, Oct. 2010.
[11] M.A. Bonuccelli, F. Lonetti, and F. Martelli, "Tree Slotted ALOHA: A New Protocol for Tag Identification in RFID Networks," Proc. Int'l Symp. World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, pp. 1-6, 2006.
[12] G. Maselli, C. Petrioli, and C. Vicari, "Dynamic Tag Estimation for Optimizing Tree Slotted ALOHA in RFID Networks," Proc. ACM 11th Int'l Symp. Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems (MSWIM '08), pp. 315-322, 2008.
[13] L.T. Porta, G. Maselli, and C. Petrioli, "Anti-Collision Protocols for Single-Reader RFID Systems: Temporal Analysis and Optimization," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 267-279, Feb. 2011.
[14] J.I. Capetanakis, "Tree Algorithms for Packet Broadcast Channels," IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. IT-25, no. 5, pp. 505-515, Sept. 1979.
[15] D.R. Hush and C. Wood, "Analysis of Tree Algorithm for RFID Arbitration," Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Information Theory, pp. 107-107, 1998.
[16] M. Kodialam and T. Nandagopal, "Fast and Reliable Estimation Schemes in RFID Systems," Proc. 12th ACM Ann. Int'l Conf. Mobile Computing and Networking Table of Contents, pp. 322-333, 2006.
[17] H. Wu and Y. Zeng, "Efficient Framed Slotted ALOHA Protocol for RFID Tag Anticollision," IEEE Trans. Automation Science and Eng., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 581-588, July 2011.
[18] Y. Maguire and R. Pappu, "An Optimal Q-Algorithm for the ISO 18000-6C RFID Protocol," IEEE Trans. Automation Science and Eng., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 16-24, Jan. 2009.
[19] D. Lee, K. Kim, and W. Lee, "Q+-Algorithm: An Enhanced RFID Tag Collision Arbitration Algorithm," Proc. Conf. Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing (UIC '07), pp. 1-10, 2007.
[20] I. Joe and J. Lee, "A Novel Anti-Collision Algorithm with Optimal Frame Size for RFID System," Proc. Fifth ACIS Int'l Conf. Software Eng. Research, Management & Applications, pp. 424-428, 2007.
[21] Y. Cui and Y. Zhao, "A Modified Q-Parameter Anti-Collision Scheme for RFID Systems," Proc. Int'l Conf. Ultra Model Telecomm. and Workshop (ICUMT '09), pp. 1-4, 2009.
[22] J. Myung, W. Lee, J. Srivastava, and T.K. Shih, "Tag-Splitting: Adaptive Collision Arbitration Protocols for RFID Tag Identification," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 763-775, June 2007.
[23] J. Park, M.Y. Chung, and T.J. Lee, "Identification of RFID Tags in Framed-Slotted ALOHA with Robust Estimation and Binary Selection," IEEE Comm. Letters, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 452-454, May 2007.
[24] C. Qian, Y. Liu, H. Ngan, and L.M. Ni, "ASAP: Scalable Identification and Counting for Contactless RFID Systems," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '10), pp. 52-61, 2010.
[25] T. Li, S. Wu, S. Chen, and M. Yang, "Energy Efficient Algorithms for the RFID Estimation Problem" Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2010.
[26] H. Han, B. Sheng, C.C. Tan, Q. Li, W. Mao, and S. Lu, "Counting RFID Tags Efficiently and Anonymously," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2010.
[27] A. Juels, R.L. Rivest, and M. Szydlo, "The Blocker Tag: Selective Blocking of RFID Tags for Consumer Privacy," Proc. ACM Conf. Computer and Comm. Security (CCS '03), pp. 1-9, 2003.
[28] C. Qian, H. Ngan, and Y. Liu, "Cardinality Estimation for Large-Scale RFID Systems," Proc. Sixth IEEE Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Communications (ICPCC '08), pp. 30-39, 2008.
[29] Y. Zheng, M. Li, and C. Qian, "PET: Probabilistic Estimating Tree for Large-Scale RFID Estimation," Proc. 31st IEEE Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), pp. 37-46, 2011.
[30] D. Simplot-Ryl, I. Stojmenovic, A. Micic, and A. Nayak, "A Hybrid Randomized Protocol for RFID Tag Identification," Sensor Rev., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 147-154, 2006.
28 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool