The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.09 - Sept. (2012 vol.23)
pp: 1643-1656
Yu Gu , National Institute of Informatics, Tokyo
Yusheng Ji , National Institute of Informatics, Tokyo
Jie Li , University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba Science City
Baohua Zhao , State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei
ABSTRACT
As a promising way in surveillance applications, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) often encounter the target coverage (TC) problem, i.e., scheduling energy-limited sensors to monitor physical targets to prolong the network lifetime. Due to the complexity of the problem (scheduling in time domain), previous proposals mainly focus on heuristics and provable optimal algorithms remain unknown. In this paper, we fill in the research blank by providing several theoretical results. First, we present a mathematical formulation and several investigations of the problem in time domain. Such time-related results provide fundamental understandings of the problem and serve as a basis. Second, we offer an upper bound on the network lifetime derived from the time-dependant formulation. The bound, which is solvable in polynomial-time, serves as a performance benchmark. Third, we verify the set cover-based method, which is widely used by previous studies, via a transformation of the problem from time to space domain. Lastly, we offer a specialized nonlinear column generation (CG) based approach to solve the problem in space domain optimally. Simulation results show that not only the bound is effective, but also the CG-based approach offers significant improvement on the network lifetime over a brutal search algorithm and a state-of-art heuristic.
INDEX TERMS
Monitoring, Wireless sensor networks, Upper bound, Energy consumption, Heuristic algorithms, Time domain analysis, Sensors, lifetime upper bound, Monitoring, Wireless sensor networks, Upper bound, Energy consumption, Heuristic algorithms, Time domain analysis, Sensors, specialized nonlinear column generation., Target coverage, wireless sensor networks
CITATION
Yu Gu, Yusheng Ji, Jie Li, Baohua Zhao, "Covering Targets in Sensor Networks: From Time Domain to Space Domain", IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol.23, no. 9, pp. 1643-1656, Sept. 2012, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2012.99
REFERENCES
[1] I.F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, "A Survey on Sensor Networks," IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 102-114, Aug. 2002.
[2] W. Song, R. Huang, M. Xu, B.A. Shirazi, and R. Lahusen, "Design and Deployment of Sensor Network for Real-Time High-Fidelity Volcano Monitoring," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1658-1674, Nov. 2010.
[3] C. Liu, K. Wu, and J. Pei, "An Energy-Efficient Data Collection Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks by Exploiting Spatiotemporal Correlation," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 1010-1023, July 2007.
[4] E.A. Lee, "Cyber Physical Systems: Design Challenges," Proc. IEEE Symp. Object Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing (ISORC), May 2008.
[5] F.-J. Wu, Y.-F. Kao, and Y.-C. Tseng, "From Wireless Sensor Networks Toward Cyber Physical Systems," Pervasive and Mobile Computing, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 397-413, Aug. 2011.
[6] M. Cardei and J. Wu, "Energy-efficient Coverage Problems in Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Network," Computer Comm. J., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 413-420, Feb. 2006.
[7] Q. Tang, L. Yang, G.B. Giannakis, and T. Qin, "Battery Power Efficiency of ppm and fsk in Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1308-1319, Apr. 2007.
[8] http:/www.xbow.com, 2012.
[9] Z. Yuan, L. Wang, L. Shu, T. Hara, and Z. Qin, "A Balanced Energy Consumption Sleep Scheduling Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. Seventh Int'l Wireless Comm. & Mobile Computing Conf. (IWCMC '11), 2011.
[10] M. Cardei and D.-Z. Du, "Improving Wireless Sensor Network Lifetime through Power Aware Organization," ACM Wireless Networks, vol. 11, pp. 333-340, May 2005.
[11] M. Cardei, Y.L.M. Thai, and W. Wu, "Energy-Efficient Target Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '05, Mar. 2005.
[12] S.-Y. Pyun and D.-H. Cho, "Energy-Efficient Scheduling for Multiple-Target Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE 71st Vehicular Technology Conf. (VTC '10)-Spring, May 2010.
[13] J. He, N. Xiong, Y. Xiao, and Y. Pan, "A Reliable Energy Efficient Algorithm for Target Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE 30th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems Workshops (ICDCS '10), 2010.
[14] J. Chen, J. Li, S. He, Y. Sun, and H.-H. Chen, "Energy-Efficient Coverage Based on Probabilistic Sensing Model in Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE Comm. Letter, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 833-835, Sept. 2010.
[15] X. Xing, J. Li, and G. Wang, "Integer Programming Scheme for Target Coverage in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Mobile Ad-Hoc and Sensor Networks (MSN), Dec. 2010.
[16] M. Lu, J. Wu, M. Cardei, and M. Li, "Energy-Efficient Connected Coverage of Discrete Targets in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Computer Networks and Mobile Computing (ICCNMC '05), Aug. 2005.
[17] Q. Zhao and M. Gurusamy, "Maximizing Network Lifetime for Connected Target Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Comm. (WiMob), 2006.
[18] Y. Ding, X. Lu, K. Hao, L. Li, and Y. Hu, "Target Coverage Optimisation of Wireless Sensor Networks Using a Multi-Objective Immune Co-Evolutionary Algorithm," Int'l J. Systems Science, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 1531-1541, Sept. 2011.
[19] Y. Kim, Y. Han, Y. Jeong, and D. Park, "Lifetime Maximization Considering Target Coverage and Connectivity in Directional Image/Video Sensor Networks," The J. Supercomputing, vol. 7, pp. 1-18, 2011.
[20] K. Shih, D. Deng, R. Chang, and H. Chen, "On Connected Target Coverage for Wireless Heterogeneous Sensor Networks with Multiple Sensing Units," Sensors, vol. 9, pp. 5173-5200, 2009.
[21] M. Naderan, M. Dehghan, and H. Pedram, "A Distributed Dual-Based Algorithm For Multi-Target Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. Int'l Symp. Computer Networks and Distributed Systems (CNDS '11), Feb. 2011.
[22] Q. Zhao and M. Gurusamy, "Lifetime Maximization for Connected Target Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networks, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1378-1391, Dec. 2008.
[23] S.-Y. Pyun and D.-H. Cho, "Power-Saving Scheduling for Multiple-Target Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE Comm. Letter, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 130-132, Feb. 2009.
[24] H. Liu, P. Wan, and X. Jia, "Maximal Lifetime Scheduling for Sensor Surveillance Systems with k Sensors to 1 Target," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 1526-1536, Dec. 2007.
[25] H. Liu, P. Wan, and X. Jia, "Maximal Lifetime Scheduling for K to 1 Sensor-Target Surveillance Networks," Computer Networks, vol. 50, pp. 2839-2854, Oct. 2006.
[26] T. He, P.A. Vicaire, T. Yan, L. Luo, L. Gu, G. Zhou, R. Stoleru, Q. Cao, J.A. Stankovic, and T. Abdelzaher, "Achieving Real-Time Target Tracking Using Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Real-Time and Embeded Technology and Applications Symp. (RTAS), pp. 37-48, 2006.
[27] S. Nath, J. Liu, and F. Zhao, "Sensormap for Wide-Area Sensor Webs," Computer, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 90-93, July 2007.
[28] Y. Gu, J. Li, B. Zhao, and Y. Ji, "Target Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Column Generation Based Approach," Proc. IEEE Sixth Int'l Conf. Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems (MASS '08), 2009.
[29] H.T.R. Horst, Global Optimization: Deterministic Approaches. Springer-Verlag, 1996.
[30] Q. Zhao and M. Gurusamy, "Connected K-target Coverage Problem in Wireless Sensor Networks with Different Observation Scenarios," Computer Networks, vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 2205-2220, 2008.
[31] Y. Gu, Y. Ji, J. Li, and B. Zhao, "An Optimal Algorithm for Solving Partial Target Coverage Problem in Wireless Sensor Networks," Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, Wiley, 2011.
[32] G. Desaulniers, J. Desrosiers, and M.M. Solomon, Column Generation. Springer, 2005.
[33] Y. Ye, "An o($n^{3}l$ ) Potential Reduction Algorithm for Linear Programming," Math. Programming, vol. 50, pp. 239-258, 1991.
[34] Y. Shi and Y. Hou, "Theoretical Results on Base Station Movement Problem for Sensor Network," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '08, 2008.
[35] H. Vance, C. Barnhart, E. Johnson, and GLAW, "Solving Binary Cutting Stock Problems by Column Generation and Branch-and-Bound," Computational Optimization and Applications, vol. 3, pp. 111-130, May 1994.
[36] P. Bjorklund, P. Varbrand, and D. Yuan, "Resource Optimization of Spatial Tdma in Ad Hoc Radio Networks: A Column Generation Approach," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '03, Mar. 2003.
[37] Y. Gu, Y. Ji, J. Li, and B.H. Zhao, "Qos-Aware Target Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks," Wireless Comm. and Mobile Computing, vol. 9, pp. 1645-1659, 2009.
[38] http:/www.lindo.com, 2012.
6 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool