This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Reliable and Energy-Efficient Multipath Communications in Underwater Sensor Networks
July 2012 (vol. 23 no. 7)
pp. 1326-1335
Junfeng Xu, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian
Keqiu Li, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian
Geyong Min, University of Bradford, Bradford
Weak reliability and low energy efficiency are the inherent problems in Underwater Sensor Networks (USNs) characterized by the acoustic channels. Although multiple-path communications coupled by Forward Error Correction (FEC) can achieve high performance for USNs, the low probability of successful recovery of received packets in the destination node significantly affects the overall Packet Error Rate (PER) and the number of multiple paths required, which in turn becomes a critical factor for reliability and energy consumption. In this paper, a novel Multiple-path FEC approach (M-FEC) based on Hamming Coding is proposed for improving reliability and energy efficiency in USNs. A Markovian model is developed to formulate the probability of M-FEC and calculate the overall PER for the proposed decision and feedback scheme, which can reduce the number of the multiple paths and achieve the desirable overall PER in M-FEC. Compared to the existing multipath communication scheme, extensive simulation experiments show that the proposed approach achieves significantly lower packet delay while consuming only 20-30 percent of energy in multiple-path USNs with various Bit Error Rates (BER).

[1] D. Pompili and I.F. Akyildiz, "Overview of Networking Protocols for Underwater Wireless Communications," IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 97-102, Jan. 2009.
[2] J. Partan, J. Kurose, and B. Levine, "A Survey of Practical Issues in Underwater Networks," ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Comm. Rev., vol. 11, pp. 23-33, 2007.
[3] K. Park and V. Rodoplu, "Uwan-Mac: An Energy-efficient Mac Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Wireless Networks," IEEE J. Oceanic Eng., vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 710-720, July 2007.
[4] "Soundlink Underwater Acoustic Modems," http:/, 2009.
[5] U. Lee, P. Wang, Y. Noh, L.F.M. Vieira, M. Gerla, and J.-H. Cui, "Pressure Routing for Underwater Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '10, 2010.
[6] D. Pompili, T. Melodia, and I.F. Akyildiz, "A Cdma-Based Medium Access Control for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks," IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1899-1909, Apr. 2009.
[7] H. Yang, B. Liu, F. Ren, H. Wen, and C. Lin, "Optimization of Energy Efficient Transmission in Underwater Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Globecom '09, pp. 1-9, 2009.
[8] V. Rodoplu and M.K. Park, "An Energy-Efficient Mac Protocol for Underwater Wireless Acoustic Networks," Proc. IEEE/MTS OCEANS, pp. 1198-1203, 2005.
[9] P. Casari and A.F. Harris, "Energy-Efficient Reliable Broadcast in Underwater Acoustic Networks," Proc. Second ACM Int'l Workshop Underwater Networks, pp. 49-56, 2007.
[10] D. Pompili, T. Melodia, and I.F. Akyildiz, "Routing Algorithms for Delay-Insensitive and Delay-Sensitive Applications in Underwater Sensor Networks," Proc. MobiCom '06, 2006.
[11] A. Martinez, I. Guillen, and A. Fabregas, "Large-snr Error Probability Analysis of Bicm with Uniform Interleaving in Fading Channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 38-44, Jan. 2009.
[12] T.K. Moon, Error Correction Coding. John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
[13] A. Vishwanathy, V. Sivaramany, M. Thottan, and C. Dovrolis, "Enabling a Bufferless Core Network Using Edge-to-Edge Packet-level Fec," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '10, pp. 1-9, 2010.
[14] R. Cohen, G. Grebla, and L. Katzir, "Cross-Layer Hybrid Fec/arq Reliable Multicast with Adaptive Modulation and Coding in Broadband Wireless Networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1908-1920, Dec. 2010.
[15] P. Xie and J.-H. Cui, "An Fec-based Reliable Data Transport Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks," Proc. 16th Int'l Conf. Computer Comm. and Networks (ICCCN '07), pp. 747-753, Aug. 2007.
[16] R. Wattenhofer, L. Li, P. Bahl, and Y. Wang, "Distributed Topology Control for Power Efficient Operation in Multihop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '01, pp. 1388-1397, 2001.
[17] M. Tarique, K.E. Tepe, S. Adibi, and S. Erfani, "Review: Survey of Multipath Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," J. Network and Computer Applications, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1125-1143, 2009.
[18] M. Rick and C. Samuel, "Hamming Coding for Multiple Sources," Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Information Theory (ISIT), 2010.
[19] T. Ketseoglou, "An Optimized Iterative (turbo) Receiver for Ofdm Systems with Type-i Hybrid Arq: Clipping and Cfo Cases," IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 2468-2477, Aug. 2010.
[20] Z. Zhou and J.-H. Cui, "Efficient Multipath Communication for Time-Critical Applications in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 19, pp. 28-41, Feb. 2011.
[21] D.J.C. MacKay, Information Theory, Inference, and Learning Algorithms. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003.
[22] V.A. Zyablov, R. Johannesson, and M. Lonar, "Low-Complexity Error Correction Of Hamming-Code-Based Ldpc Codes," Problems of Information Transmission, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 95-109, 2009.
[23] H. Dubois-Ferrire, D. Estrin, and M. Vetterli, "Packet Combining in Sensor Networks," Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '05), 2005.
[24] L. Dai and K. Letaief, "Throughput Maximization of Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks Using Adaptive Cooperative Diversity and Truncated Arq," IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 1907-1918, Nov. 2008.
[25] Y. Zhu and T. Kunz, "Maodv Implementation for Ns-2.26," Technical Report SCE-04-01, Carleton Univ., 2004.
[26] D. Pauluzzi and N. Beaulieu, "A Comparison of Snr Estimation Techniques for the Awgn Channel," IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 1681-1691, Oct. 2000.
[27] M.K. Simon and M.S. Alouini, Digital Communication over Fading Channels: A Unified Approach to Performance Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, 2000.
[28] Y.Y. Kim and S. qi Li, "Modeling Multipath Fading Channel Dynamics for Packet Data Performance Analysis," Wireless Networks, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 481-492, 2000.
[29] B. Sklar, Digital Communications Fundamentals and Applications. Prentice-Hall, 1988.
[30] K.-Y. Chow, K.-S. Lui, and E.Y. Lam, "Efficient On-Demand Image Transmission in Visual Sensor Networks," EURASIP J. Applications Signal Processing, vol. 2007, pp. 225-225, Jan. 2007.
[31] P. Rost and G. Fettweis, "On the Transmission-Computation-Energy Tradeoff in Wireless and Fixed Networks," Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, pp. 1394-1399, Dec. 2010.
[32] "Underwater Simulation Module for Network Simulator 2," http://www.nbqadri.comns2/, 2009.

Index Terms:
Underwater sensor networks, multipath communication, energy efficiency, forward error correction, hamming coding.
Junfeng Xu, Keqiu Li, Geyong Min, "Reliable and Energy-Efficient Multipath Communications in Underwater Sensor Networks," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 1326-1335, July 2012, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2011.266
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.