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Flash Crowd in P2P Live Streaming Systems: Fundamental Characteristics and Design Implications
July 2012 (vol. 23 no. 7)
pp. 1227-1239
Fangming Liu, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan
Bo Li, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong
Lili Zhong, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong
Baochun Li, University of Toronto, Toronto
Hai Jin, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan
Xiaofei Liao, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan
Peer-to-peer (P2P) live video streaming systems have recently received substantial attention, with commercial deployment gaining increased popularity in the internet. It is evident from our practical experiences with real-world systems that, it is not uncommon for hundreds of thousands of users to choose to join a program in the first few minutes of a live broadcast. Such a severe flash crowd phenomenon in live streaming poses significant challenges in the system design. In this paper, for the first time, we develop a mathematical model to: 1) capture the fundamental relationship between time and scale in P2P live streaming systems under a flash crowd, and 2) explore the design principle of population control to alleviate the impact of the flash crowd. We carry out rigorous analysis that brings forth an in-depth understanding on effects of the gossip protocol and peer dynamics. In particular, we demonstrate that there exists an upper bound on the system scale with respect to a time constraint. By trading peer startup delays in the initial stage of a flash crowd for system scale, we design a simple and flexible population control framework that can alleviate the flash crowd without the requirement of otherwise costly server deployment.
Index Terms:
Live video streaming, peer-to-peer, flash crowds, population control.
Citation:
Fangming Liu, Bo Li, Lili Zhong, Baochun Li, Hai Jin, Xiaofei Liao, "Flash Crowd in P2P Live Streaming Systems: Fundamental Characteristics and Design Implications," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 1227-1239, July 2012, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2011.283
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