This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
On Optimizing Overlay Topologies for Search in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks
May 2012 (vol. 23 no. 5)
pp. 924-935
Hung-Chang Hsiao, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan
Hong-Wei Su, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan
Unstructured peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing networks are popular in the mass market. As the peers participating in unstructured networks interconnect randomly, they rely on flooding query messages to discover objects of interest and thus introduce remarkable network traffic. Empirical measurement studies indicate that the peers in P2P networks have similar preferences, and have recently proposed unstructured P2P networks that organize participating peers by exploiting their similarity. The resultant networks may not perform searches efficiently and effectively because existing overlay topology construction algorithms often create unstructured P2P networks without performance guarantees. Thus, we propose a novel overlay formation algorithm for unstructured P2P networks. Based on the file sharing pattern exhibiting the power-law property, our proposal is unique in that it poses rigorous performance guarantees. Theoretical performance results conclude that in a constant probability, 1) searching an object in our proposed network efficiently takes O(\ln^{c} {\cal N}) hops (where c is a small constant), and 2) the search progressively and effectively exploits the similarity of peers. In addition, the success ratio of discovering an object approximates 100 percent. We validate our theoretical analysis and compare our proposal to competing algorithms in simulations. Based on the simulation results, our proposal clearly outperforms the competing algorithms in terms of 1) the hop count of routing a query message, 2) the successful ratio of resolving a query, 3) the number of messages required for resolving a query, and 4) the message overhead for maintaining and formatting the overlay.

[1] IPOQUE, "Ipoque Internet Study 2007: P2P File Sharing Still Dominates the Worldwide Internet," http://www.ipoque.com/news-and-events/news/ archive2007, 2011.
[2] S. Sen and J. Wang, "Analyzing Peer-to-Peer Traffic Across Large Networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 219-232, Apr. 2004.
[3] Gnutella, http:/rfc-gnutella.sourceforge.net/, 2011.
[4] Y. Liu, J. Han, and J. Wang, "Rumor Riding: Anonymizing Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Systems," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 464-475, Mar. 2011.
[5] H. Chen, H. Jin, Y. Liu, and L.M. Ni, "Difficulty-Aware Hybrid Search in Peer-to-Peer Networks," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 71-82, Jan. 2009.
[6] A. Crespo and H. Garcia-Molina, "Routing Indices for Peer-to-Peer Systems," Proc. 22th IEEE Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '02), pp. 23-32, July 2002.
[7] X. Shi, J. Han, Y. Liu, and L.M. Ni, "Popularity Adaptive Search in Hybrid P2P Systems," J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 125-134, Feb. 2009.
[8] E. Cohen and S. Shenker, "Replication Strategies in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '02, pp. 177-190, Aug. 2002.
[9] Q. Lv, P. Cao, E. Cohen, K. Li, and S. Shenker, "Search and Replication in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks," Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Supercomputing (ICS '02), pp. 84-95, June 2002.
[10] Gnutella2, http:/g2.trillinux.org/, 2011.
[11] KaZaA, http:/www.kazaa.com/, 2011.
[12] Y. Chawathe, S. Ratnasamy, L. Breslau, N. Lanham, and S. Shenker, "Making Gnutella-like P2P Systems Scalable," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '03, pp. 407-418, Aug. 2003.
[13] L. Xiao, Z. Zhuang, and Y. Liu, "Dynamic Layer Management in Superpeer Architectures," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1078-1091, Nov. 2005.
[14] Y. Liu, L. Xiao, X. Liu, L.M. Ni, and X. Zhang, "Location Awareness in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Systems," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 163-174, Feb. 2005.
[15] L. Xiao, Y. Liu, and L.M. Ni, "Improving Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Systems by Adaptive Connection Establishment," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 1091-1103, Sept. 2005.
[16] F.L. Fessant, S.B. Handurukande, A.-M. Kermarrec, and L. Massoulié, "Clustering in Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Workloads," Proc. Third Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS '04), pp. 217-226, Feb. 2004.
[17] A. Iamnitchi, M. Ripeanu, E. Santos-Neto, and I. Foster, "The Small World of File Sharing," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 1120-1134, http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109 TPDS.2010.170, July 2011.
[18] K. Sripanidkulchai, B. Maggs, and H. Zhang, "Efficient Content Location Using Interest-Based Locality in Peer-to-Peer Systems," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '03, pp. 2166-2176, Mar. 2003.
[19] L.C. Freeman, "A Set of Measures of Centrality Based on Betweenness," Sociometry, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 35-41, Mar. 1977.
[20] M. Girvan and M.E.J. Newman, "Community Structure in Social and Biological Networks," Proc. Nat'l Academy of Sciences of USA, vol. 99, no. 12, pp. 7821-7826, June 2002.
[21] Y. Zhu and Y. Hu, "Enhancing Search Performance on Gnutella-Like P2P Systems," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 1482-1495, Dec. 2006.
[22] S. Voulgaris, M. Steen, and K. Iwanicki, "Proactive Gossip-Based Management of Semantic Overlay Networks," Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, vol. 19, no. 17, pp. 2299-2311, Dec. 2007.
[23] P. Raftopoulou, E.G.M. Petrakis, and C. Tryfonopoulos, "Rewiring Strategies for Semantic Overlay Networks," Distributed and Parallel Databases, vol. 26, nos. 2/3, pp. 181-205, Dec. 2009.
[24] K.C.-J. Lin, C.-P. Wang, C.-F. Chou, and L. Golubchik, "SocioNet: A Social-Based Multimedia Access System for Unstructured P2P Networks," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1027-1041, July 2010.
[25] S. Merugu, S. Srinivasan, and E. Zegura, "Adding Structure to Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks: The Use of Small-World Graphs," J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 142-153, Feb. 2005.
[26] H. Jin, X. Ning, and H. Chen, "Efficient Search for Peer-to-Peer Information Retrieval Using Semantic Small World," Proc. 15th ACM Int'l Conf. World Wide Web (WWW '06), pp. 1003-1004, May 2006.
[27] G. Chen, C.P. Low, and Z. Yang, "Enhancing Search Performance in Unstructured P2P Networks Based on Users' Common Interest," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 821-836, June 2008.
[28] W. Ke and J. Mostafa, "Strong Ties versus Weak Ties: Studying the Clustering Paradox for Decentralized Search," Proc. Seventh Int'l Workshop Large-Scale Distributed Systems for Information Retrieval (LSDS-IR '09), pp. 49-56, July 2009.
[29] B. Bollobás, Random Graphs, second ed. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001.
[30] X. Li and J. Wu, "Searching Techniques in Peer-to-Peer Networks," Handbook of Theoretical and Algorithmic Aspects of Ad Hoc, Sensor, and Peer-to-Peer Networks, pp. 613-642, Auerbach, 2006.
[31] Y. Zhu and Y. Hu, "Semantic Search in Peer-to-Peer Systems," Handbook of Theoretical and Algorithmic Aspects of Ad Hoc, Sensor, and Peer-to-Peer Networks, pp. 643-664, Auerbach, 2006.
[32] C. Tang, Z. Xu, and S. Dwarkadas, "Peer-to-Peer Information Retrieval Using Self-Organizing Semantic Overlay Networks," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '03, pp. 175-186, Aug. 2003.
[33] M. Li, W.-C. Lee, A. Sivasubramaniam, and J. Zhao, "SSW: A Small-World-Based Overlay for Peer-to-Peer Search," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 735-749, June 2008.
[34] I. Stoica, R. Morris, D. Liben-Nowell, D.R. Karger, M.F. Kaashoek, F. Dabek, and H. Balakrishnan, "Chord: A Scalable Peer-to-Peer Lookup Protocol for Internet Applications," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 17-21, Feb. 2003.
[35] M.W. Berry, Z. Drmac, and E.R. Jessup, "Matrices, Vector Spaces, and Information Retrieval," SIAM Rev., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 335-362, June 1999.
[36] A.L. Berger, S.D. Pietra, and V.J.D. Pietra, "A Maximum Entropy Approach to Natural Language Processing," Computational Linguistics, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 39-71, Mar. 1996.
[37] P. Eugster, R. Guerraoui, S.B. Handurukande, P. Kouznetsov, and A.-M. Kermarrec, "Lightweight Probabilistic Broadcast," ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 341-374, 2003.
[38] A.J. Ganesh, A.-M. Kermarrec, and L. Massoulié, "Peer-to-Peer Membership Management for Gossip-Based Protocols," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 139-149, Feb. 2003.
[39] L. Alvisi, J. Doumen, R. Guerraoui, B. Koldehofe, H.C. Li, R. van Renesse, and G. Trédan, "How Robust Are Gossip-Based Communication Protocols?," ACM Operating Systems Rev., vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 14-18, Oct. 2007.
[40] N. Metropolis, A.W. Rosenbluth, M.N. Rosenbluth, A.H. Teller, and E. Teller, "Equations of State Calculations by Fast Computing Machines," J. Chemical Physics, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 1087-1092, June 1953.
[41] W.K. Hastings, "Monte Carlo Sampling Methods Using Markov Chains and Their Applications," Biometrika, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 97-109, Apr. 1970.
[42] J.M. Kleinberg, "The Small-World Phenomenon: An Algorithm Perspective," Proc. 22nd ACM Symp. Theory of Computing (STOC '00), pp. 163-170, May 2000.
[43] G. Manku, M. Bawa, and P. Raghavan, "Symphony: Distributed Hashing in a Small World," Proc. USENIX Symp. Internet Technologies and Systems, Mar. 2003.
[44] H.-C. Hsiao, Y.-C. Lin, and H. Liao, "Building Small-World Peer-to-Peer Networks Based on Hierarchical Structures," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1023-1037, July 2009.
[45] S. Schmid and R. Wattenhofer, "Structuring Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks," Proc. Int'l Conf. High Performance Computing (HiPC '07), pp. 432-442, Dec. 2007.
[46] T. Moscibroda, S. Schmid, and R. Wattenhofer, "On the Topologies Formed by Selfish Peers," Proc. 25th ACM Symp. Principles Distributed Computing (PODC '06), pp. 133-142, July 2006.
[47] Y. Shavitt, E. Weinsberg, and U. Weinsberg, "Estimating Peer Similarity Using Distance of Shared Files," Proc. Ninth Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS '10), Apr. 2010.
[48] S. Saroiu, P.K. Gummadi, and S.D. Gribble, "Measuring and Analyzing the Characteristics of Napster and Gnutella Hosts," Multimedia Systems, vol. 9, pp. 170-184, Aug. 2003.
[49] V. Aggarwal, A. Feldmann, and C. Scheideler, "Can ISPs and PSP Users Cooperate for Improved Performance?," ACM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 29-40, 2007.
[50] M. Bawa, H. Garcia-Molina, A. Gionis, and R. Motwani, "Estimating Aggregates on a Peer-to-Peer Network," technical report, Stanford InfoLab, http://ilpubs.stanford.edu:8090586/, Apr. 2003.
[51] M.R. Garey and D.S. Johnson, Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness. W.H. Freeman, 1979.
[52] S. Kirkpatrick, C.D. Gelatt, and M.P. Vecchi, "Optimization by Simulated Annealing," Science, vol. 220, no. 4598, pp. 671-680, May 1983.
[53] A. Clauset, C.R. Shalizi, and M.E.J. Newman, "Power-Law Distributions in Empirical Data," SIAM Rev., vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 661-703, 2009.
[54] H. Chernoff, "A Measure of Asymptotic Efficiency for Tests of a Hypothesis Based on the Sum of Observations," Annals of Math. Statistics, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 493-507, 1952.

Index Terms:
Peer-to-peer systems, unstructured overlay networks, search.
Citation:
Hung-Chang Hsiao, Hong-Wei Su, "On Optimizing Overlay Topologies for Search in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 924-935, May 2012, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2011.241
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.