This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Modeling and Analysis of Communication Networks in Multicluster Systems under Spatio-Temporal Bursty Traffic
May 2012 (vol. 23 no. 5)
pp. 902-912
Yulei Wu, University of Bradford, Bradford
Geyong Min, University of Bradford, Bradford
Keqiu Li, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian
Bahman Javadi, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne
Multicluster systems have emerged as a promising infrastructure for provisioning of cost-effective high-performance computing and communications. Analytical models of communication networks in cluster systems have been widely reported. However, for tractability and simplicity, the existing models are based on the assumptions that the network traffic follows the nonbursty Poisson arrival process and the message destinations are uniformly distributed. Recent measurement studies have shown that the traffic generated by real-world applications reveals the bursty nature in both the spatial domain (i.e., nonuniform distribution of message destinations) and temporal domain (i.e., bursty message arrival process). In order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the system performance, a novel analytical model is developed for communication networks in multicluster systems in the presence of the spatio-temporal bursty traffic. The spatial traffic burstiness is captured by the communication locality and the temporal traffic burstiness is modeled by the Markov-modulated Poisson process. After validating its accuracy through extensive simulation experiments, the model is used to investigate the impact of bursty message arrivals and communication locality on network performance. The analytical results demonstrate that the communication locality can relieve the degrading effects of bursty message arrivals on the network performance.

[1] J.H. Abawajy, "An Efficient Adaptive Scheduling Policy for High-Performance Computing," Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 364-370, 2009.
[2] A. Agarwal, "Limits on Interconnection Network Performance," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distributed Systems, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 398-412, Oct. 1991.
[3] N. Alzeidi, M. Ould-Khaoua, and A. Khonsari, "A New General Method to Compute Virtual Channels Occupancy Probabilities in Wormhole Networks," J. Computer and System Sciences, vol. 74, no. 6, pp. 1033-1042, 2008.
[4] D. Bruneo, M. Scarpa, and A. Puliafito, "Performance Evaluation of gLite Grids through GSPNs," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1611-1625, Nov. 2010.
[5] W.J. Dally and B.P. Towles, Principles and Practices of Interconnection Network. Morgan Kaufmann, 2004.
[6] P.A. Dinda, "Design, Implementation, and Performance of an Extensible Toolkit for Resource Prediction in Distributed Systems," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 160-173, Feb. 2006.
[7] X. Du, X. Zhang, and Z. Zhu, "Memory Hierarchy Considerations for Cost-Effective Cluster Computing," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 915-933, Sept. 2000.
[8] J. Duato, S. Yalamanchili, and L. Ni, Interconnection Networks: An Engineering Approach. Morgan Kaufmann, 2003.
[9] W. Fischer and K. Meier-Hellstern, "The Markov-Modulated Poisson Process (MMPP) Cookbook," Performance Evaluation, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 149-171, 1993.
[10] Force, "Building Scalable, High Performance Cluster/Grid Networks: The Role of Ethernet," White Paper, Force 10 Networks, Inc., Milpitas, CA, USA, 2004.
[11] F. Frattolillo, "Supporting Data Management on Cluster Grids," Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 166-176, 2008.
[12] C. Gomez, F. Gilabert, M.E. Gomez, P. Lopez, and J. Duato, "Deterministic versus Adaptive Routing in Fat-Trees," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS '07), pp. 1-8, 2007.
[13] H. Heffes, "A Class of Data Traffic Processes-Covariance Function Characterization and Related Queueing Results," Bell System Technical J., vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 897-929, 1980.
[14] A. Heindl, "Decomposition of General Queueing Networks with MMPP Inputs and Customer Losses," Performance Evaluation, vol. 51, nos. 2-4, pp. 117-136, 2003.
[15] B. Javadi, J.H. Abawajy, and M.K. Akbari, "A Comprehensive Analytical Model of Interconnection Networks in Large-Scale Cluster Systems," Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 75-97, 2007.
[16] W.-C. Jeuna, Y.-S. Keeb, S. Haa, and C. Kee, "Overcoming Performance Bottlenecks in Using OpenMP on SMP Clusters," Parallel Computing, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 570-592, 2008.
[17] Y. Jin, E.J. Kim, and K.H. Yum, "Design and Analysis of On-Chip Networks for Large-Scale Cache Systems," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 332-344, Mar. 2010.
[18] A. Khonsari, H. Sarbazi-Azad, and M. Ould-Khaoua, "An Analytical Model of Adaptive Wormhole Routing with Time-Out," Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1-12, 2003.
[19] L. Kleinrock, Queueing Systems, vol. 1, John Wiley, 1975.
[20] D.B. Larkins, J. Dinan, S. Krishnamoorthy, S. Parthasarathy, A. Rountev, and P. Sadayappan, "Global Trees: A Framework for Linked Data Structures on Distributed Memory Parallel Systems," Proc. ACM/IEEE Conf. Supercomputing, 2008.
[21] H. Lee and D.-H. Cho, "Capacity Improvement and Analysis of VoIP Service in a Cognitive Radio System," IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 1646-1651, May 2010.
[22] X.-Y. Lin, Y.-C. Chung, and T.-Y. Huang, "A Multiple LID Routing Scheme for Fat-Tree-Based InfiniBand Networks," Proc. IEEE Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS '04), 2004.
[23] OMNeT++ Network Simulator, http:/, 2011.
[24] M. Ould-Khaoua, "A Performance Model for Duato's Fully Adaptive Routing Algorithm in k,-Ary n-Cubes," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 1297-1304, Dec. 1999.
[25] D.K. Panda, "Designing Next Generation Clusters with Infiniband and 10GE/iWARP: Opportunities and Challenges," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Cluster Computing, p. 202, 2008.
[26] X. Qin, H. Jiang, A. Manzanares, X. Ruan, and S. Yin, "Communication-Aware Load Balancing for Parallel Applications on Clusters," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 42-52, Jan. 2010.
[27] M.D. Schroeder, A.D. Birrell, M. Burrows, H. Murray, R.M. Needham, T.L. Rodeheffer, E.H. Satterthwaite, and C.P. Thacker, "Autonet: A High-Speed, Self-Configuring Local Area Network Using Point-to-Point Links," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 1318-1335, Oct. 1991.
[28] H. Shen and C.-Z. Xu, "Elastic Routing Table with Provable Performance for Congestion Control in DHT Networks," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 242-256, Feb. 2010.
[29] H.J. Song and A.A. Chien, "Feedback-Based Synchronization in System Area Networks for Cluster Computing," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 908-920, Oct. 2005.
[30] O.O. Sonmez, H. Mohamed, and D.H.J. Epema, "On the Benefit of Processor Coallocation in Multicluster Grid Systems," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 778-789, June 2010.
[31] M.S. Squillante, D.D. Yao, and L. Zhang, "Analysis of Job Arrival Patterns and Parallel Scheduling Performance," Performance Evaluation, vol. 36-37, no. 1, pp. 137-163, 1999.
[32] J.S. Vetter and F. Mueller, "Communication Characteristic of Large-Scale Scientific Applications for Contemporary Cluster Architectures," J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 853-865, 2003.
[33] A. Vishnu, A.R. Mamidala, H.-W. Jin, and D.K. Panda, "Performance Modeling of Subnet Management on Fat Tree InfiniBand Networks Using OpenSM," Proc. IEEE Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS '05), 2005.
[34] K.H. Yum, E.J. Kim, C.R. Das, and A.S. Vaidya, "MediaWorm: A QoS Capable Router Architecture for Clusters," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1261-1274, Dec. 2002.
[35] J. Zhou, X.-Y. Lin, and Y.-C. Chung, "Hardware Supported Multicast in Fat-Tree-Based InfiniBand Networks," The J. Supercomputing, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 333-352, 2007.
[36] Z. Zong, M. Nijim, A. Manzanares, and X. Qin, "Energy Efficient Scheduling for Parallel Applications on Mobile Clusters," Cluster Computing, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 91-113, 2008.

Index Terms:
Cluster computing, bursty traffic, communication locality, fat tree, performance modeling.
Yulei Wu, Geyong Min, Keqiu Li, Bahman Javadi, "Modeling and Analysis of Communication Networks in Multicluster Systems under Spatio-Temporal Bursty Traffic," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 902-912, May 2012, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2011.198
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.