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An Efficient Adaptive Deadlock-Free Routing Algorithm for Torus Networks
May 2012 (vol. 23 no. 5)
pp. 800-808
Dong Xiang, Sch. of Software, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China
Wei Luo, Inf. Center, Hunan Electr. Power Corp., Changsha, China
A deadlock-free minimal routing algorithm called clue is first proposed for VCT (virtual cut-through)-switched tori. Only two virtual channels are required. One channel is applied in the deadlock-free routing algorithm for the mesh subnetwork based on a known base routing scheme, such as, negative-first or dimension-order routing. The other channel is similar to an adaptive channel. This combination presents a novel fully adaptive minimal routing scheme because the first channel does not supply routing paths for every source-destination pair. Other two algorithms named flow controlled clue and wormhole clue are proposed. Flow controlled clue is proposed for VCT-switched tori, which is fully adaptive minimal deadlock-free with no virtual channel. Each input port requires at least two buffers, each of which is able to keep a packet. A simple but well-designed flow control function is used in the proposed flow controlled clue routing algorithm to avoid deadlocks. Wormhole clue is proposed for wormhole-switched tori. It is partially adaptive because we add some constraints to the adaptive channels for deadlock avoidance. It is shown that clue and flow controlled clue work better than the bubble flow control scheme under several popular traffic patterns in 3-dimensional (3D) torus. In a wormhole-switched tori, the advantage of wormhole clue over Duato's protocol is also very apparent.

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Index Terms:
protocols,multiprocessor interconnection networks,network routing,3D torus,adaptive deadlock-free minimal routing algorithm,torus network,virtual cut-through,VCT-switched tori,virtual channel,mesh subnetwork,negative-first routing scheme,dimension-order routing,adaptive channel,routing path,source-destination pair,flow controlled clue algorithm,wormhole clue algorithm,buffers,packet,flow control function,deadlock avoidance,bubble flow control scheme,Duato protocol,Routing,Virtual systems,Switching,Wormhole switching,torus.,Virtual cut-through switching,wormhole switching,adaptive routing,deadlock-free
Dong Xiang, Wei Luo, "An Efficient Adaptive Deadlock-Free Routing Algorithm for Torus Networks," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 800-808, May 2012, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2011.145
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