The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.03 - March (2012 vol.23)
pp: 556-563
Chen Wang , Google, Inc., Mountain View
Pei Huang , Michigan State University, East Lansing
Greedy forwarding is a simple yet efficient technique employed by many routing protocols. It is ideal to realize point-to-point routing in wireless sensor networks because packets can be delivered by only maintaining a small set of neighbors' information regardless of network size. It has been successfully employed by geographic routing, which assumes that a packet can be moved closer to the destination in the network topology if it is forwarded geographically closer to the destination in the physical space. This assumption, however, may lead packets to the local minimum where no neighbors of the sender are closer to the destination or low-quality routes that comprise long distance hops of low packet reception ratio. To address the local minimum problem, we propose a topology aware routing (TAR) protocol that efficiently encodes a network topology into a low-dimensional virtual coordinate space where hop distances between pairwise nodes are preserved. Based on precise hop distance comparison, TAR can assist greedy forwarding to find the right neighbor that is one hop closer to the destination and achieve high success ratio of packet delivery without location information. Further, we improve the routing quality by embedding a network topology based on the metric of expected transmission count (ETX). ETX embedding accurately encodes both a network's topological structure and channel quality to nodes' small size virtual coordinates, which helps greedy forwarding to guide a packet along the optimal path that has the fewest number of transmissions. We evaluate our approaches through both simulations and experiments, showing that routing performance are improved in terms of routing success ratio and routing cost.
Sensor networks, routing, link quality, topology embedding.
Chen Wang, Pei Huang, "Improving End-to-End Routing Performance of Greedy Forwarding in Sensor Networks", IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol.23, no. 3, pp. 556-563, March 2012, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2011.175
[1] S. Shenker, S. Ratnasamy, B. Karp, R. Govindan, and D. Estrin, "Data-Centric Storage in Sensornets," ACM SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 137-142, 2003.
[2] P. Bose, P. Morin, I. Stojmenovic, and J. Urrutia, "Routing with Guaranteed Delivery in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks," ACM Wireless Networks, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 609-616, 2001.
[3] B. Karp and H.T. Kung, "GPSR: Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Networks," Proc. MobiCom, 2000.
[4] F. Kuhn, R. Wattenhofer, Y. Zhang, and A. Zollinger, "Geometric Ad-Hoc Routing: Of Theory and Practice," Proc. Ann. Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), 2003.
[5] H. Frey and I. Stojmenovic, "On Delivery Guarantees of Face and Combined Greedy-Face Routing in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks," Proc. MobiCom, pp. 390-401, 2006.
[6] Z. Zhong and T. He, "Achieving Range-Free Localization beyond Connectivity," Proc. ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), 2009.
[7] T. He, C. Huang, B.M. Blum, J.A. Stankovic, and T. Abdelzaher, "Range-Free Localization Schemes for Large Scale Sensor Networks," Proc. MobiCom, pp. 81-95, 2003.
[8] D.S.J.D. Couto, D. Aguayo, J. Bicket, and R. Morris, "A High-Throughput Path Metric for Multi-Hop Wireless Routing," Proc. MobiCom, pp. 134-146, 2003.
[9] Y.-J. Kim, R. Govindan, B. Karp, and S. Shenker, "Geographic Routing Made Practical," Proc. Conf. Symp. Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI), vol. 2, pp. 217-230, 2005.
[10] B. Leong, B. Liskov, and R. Morris, "Geographic Routing without Planarization," Proc. Conf. Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI), vol. 3, pp. 339-352, 2006.
[11] J. Newsome and D. Song, "GEM: Graph EMbedding for Routing and Data-Centric Storage in Sensor Networks without Geographic Information," Proc. Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), pp. 76-88, 2003.
[12] W. Jia, T. Wang, G. Wang, and M. Guo, "Hole Avoiding in Advance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf. (WCNC), 2007.
[13] S. Chen, G. Fan, and J.-H. Cui, "Avoid "Void" in Geographic Routing for Data Aggregation in Sensor Networks," Int'l J. Ad Hoc and Ubiquitious Computing, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 169-178, 2006.
[14] F. Yu, S. Park, Y. Tian, M. Jin, and S.-H. Kim, "Efficient Hole Detour Scheme for Geographic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. Vehicular Technology Conf. (VTC), pp. 2326-2330, 2008.
[15] Q. Fang, J. Gao, and L.J. Guibas, "Locating and Bypassing Holes in Sensor Networks," Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 187-200, 2006.
[16] Q. Cao and T.F. Abdelzaher, "A Scalable Logical Coordinates Framework for Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Int'l Real-Time Systems Symp. (RTSS), pp. 349-358, 2004.
[17] R. Fonseca, S. Ratnasamy, J. Zhao, C.T. Ee, D. Culler, S. Shenker, and I. Stoica, "Beacon Vector Routing: Scalable Point-to-Point Routing in Wireless Sensornets," Proc. Conf. Symp. Networked Systems Design Implementation (NSDI), 2005.
[18] A. Caruso, S. Chessa, S. De, and A. Urpi, "GPS Free Coordinate Assignment and Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 150-160, 2005.
[19] B. Yu and K. Sycara, "Geographic Routing in Distributed Sensor Systems without Location Information," Proc. Int'l Conf. Information Fusion, 2006.
[20] K. Liu and N. Abu-Ghazaleh, "Aligned Virtual Coordinates for Greedy Routing in WSNs," Int'l J. Sensor Networks, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 252-265, 2008.
[21] K. Seada, M. Zuniga, A. Helmy, and B. Krishnamachari, "Energy Efficient Forwarding Strategies for Geographic Routing in Lossy Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), 2004.
[22] S. Lee, B. Bhattacharjee, and S. Banerjee, "Efficient Geographic Routing in Multihop Wireless Networks," Proc. ACM Int'l Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc), 2005.
[23] E. Hamouda, N. Mitton, B. Pavkovic, and D. Simplot-Ryl, "Energy-Aware Georouting with Guaranteed Delivery in Wireless Sensor Networks with Obstacles," Int. J. Wireless Information Networks, vol. 8, pp. 142-153, 2009.
[24] T.F. Cox and M.A.A. Cox, Multidimensional Scaling. Chapman and Hall, 1994.
[25] J. Wu, W. Lou, and F. Dai, "Extended Multipoint Relays to Determine Connected Dominating Sets in Manets," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 334-347, Mar. 2006.
[26] D. Niculescu and B. Nath, "DV Based Positioning in Ad Hoc Networks," J. Telecomm. Systems, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 267-280, 2003.
[27] Y. Sun, O. Gurewitz, S. Du, L. Tang, and D.B. Johnson, "ADB: An Efficient Multihop Broadcast Protocol Based on Asynchronous Duty-Cycling in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), pp. 43-56, 2009.
[28] M. Buettner, G.V. Yee, E. Anderson, and R. Han, "X-MAC: A Short Preamble MAC Protocol for Duty-Cycled Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), pp. 307-320, 2006.
17 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool