The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.03 - March (2012 vol.23)
pp: 530-537
Wan Yeon Lee , Dongduk Women's University, Seoul
For lightly loaded multicore processors that contain more processing cores than running tasks and have dynamic voltage and frequency scaling capability, we address the energy-efficient scheduling of periodic real-time tasks. First, we introduce two energy-saving techniques for the lightly loaded multicore processors: exploiting overabundant cores for executing a task in parallel with a lower frequency and turning off power of rarely used cores. Next, we verify that if the two introduced techniques are supported, then the problem of minimizing energy consumption of real-time tasks while meeting their deadlines is NP-hard on a lightly loaded multicore processor. Finally, we propose a polynomial-time scheduling scheme that provides a near minimum-energy feasible schedule. The difference of energy consumption between the provided schedule and the minimum-energy schedule is limited. The scheme saves up to 64 percent of the processing core energy consumed by the previous scheme that executes each task on a separate core.
Energy minimization, multicore processor, periodic real-time task, scheduling, dynamic voltage and frequency scaling.
Wan Yeon Lee, "Energy-Efficient Scheduling of Periodic Real-Time Tasks on Lightly Loaded Multicore Processors", IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol.23, no. 3, pp. 530-537, March 2012, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2011.87
[1] M. Nikitovic and M. Brorsson, "An Adaptive Chip-Multiprocessor Architecture for Future Mobile Terminals," Proc. Int'l Conf. Compilers, Architecture, and Synthesis for Embedded Systems, pp. 43-49, 2002.
[2] D. Geer, "Industry Trends: Chip Makers Turn to Multicore Processors," Computer, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 11-13, 2005.
[3] "Int'l Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors:," Ed., Semiconductor Industry Assoc. (SIA), http:/, 2005.
[4] J.H. Anderson and S.K. Baruah, "Energy-Efficient Synthesis of Periodic Task Systems upon Identical Multiprocessor Platforms," Proc. Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), pp. 428-435, 2004.
[5] C.-Y. Yang, J.-J. Chen, and T.-W. Kuo, "An Approximation Algorithm for Energy-Efficient Scheduling on a Chip Multiprocessor," Proc. Design, Automation and Test in Europe (DATE) Conf., pp. 468-473, 2005.
[6] R. Xu, C. Xi, R. Melhem, and D. Moss, "Practical Pace for Embedded Systems," Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Embedded Software (EMSOFT), pp. 54-63, 2004.
[7] C. Xian and Y.-H. Lu, "Dynamic Voltage Scaling for Multitasking Real-Time Systems with Uncertain Execution Time," Proc. ACM Great Lakes Symp. VLSI (GLSVLSI), pp. 392-397, 2006.
[8] D. Zhu, R. Melhem, and B.R. Childers, "Scheduling with Dynamic Voltage/Speed Adjustment Using Slack Reclamation in Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distributed System, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 686-700, July 2003.
[9] H. Aydin, R. Melhem, D. Mossé, and P. Mejía-Alvarez, "Power-Aware Scheduling for Periodic Real-Time Tasks," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 584-600, May 2004.
[10] E. Seo, J. Jeong, S. Park, and J. Lee, "Energy Efficient Scheduling of Real-Time Tasks on Multicore Processors," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distributed System, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1540-1552, Nov. 2008.
[11] H. Aydin and Q. Yang, "Energy-Aware Partitioning for Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems," Proc. Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS), p. 113.2, 2003.
[12] C. Xian, Y.-H. Lu, and Z. Li, "Energy-Aware Scheduling for Real-Time Multiprocessor Systems with Uncertain Task Execution Time," Proc. Ann. Design Automation Conf. (DAC), pp. 664-669, 2007.
[13] J.-J. Chen and T.-W. Kuo, "Multiprocessor Energy-Efficient Scheduling for Real-Time Tasks with Different Power Characteristics," Proc. Int'l Conf. Parallel Processing (ICPP), pp. 13-20, 2005.
[14] H. Kim, H. Hong, H.-S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, and S. Kang, "Total Energy Minimization of Real-Time Tasks in an On-Chip Multiprocessor Using Dynamic Voltage Scaling Efficiency Metric," IEEE Trans. Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 2088-2092, Nov. 2008.
[15] J. Luo and N.K. Jha, "Power-Efficient Scheduling for Heterogeneous Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems," IEEE Trans. Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 1161-1170, June 2007.
[16] A. Andrei, P. Eles, Z. Peng, M.T. Schmitz, and B.M. Al Hashimi, "Energy Optimization of Multiprocessor Systems on Chip by Voltage Selection," IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integration Systems, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 262-275, Mar. 2007.
[17] J. Li and J.F. Martínez, "Dynamic Power-Performance Adaptation of Parallel Computation on Chip Multiprocessors," Proc. Int'l Symp. High-Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA), pp. 77-87, 2006.
[18] W.Y. Lee, H. Kim, and H. Lee, "Energy-Efficient Scheduling of a Real-Time Task on DVFS-Enabled Multi-Cores," Technical Report CIC-CCS-TR 08-001, Korea Univ.,, 2008.
[19] E. Talpes and D. Marculescu, "Toward a Multiple Clock/Voltage Island Design Style for Power-Aware Processors," IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integration Systems, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 591-603, May 2005.
[20] G. Magklis, G. Semeraro, D.H. Albonesi, S.G. Dropsho, S. Dwarkadas, and M.L. Scott, "Dynamic Frequency and Voltage Scaling for a Multiple-Clock-Domain Microprocessor," IEEE Micro, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 62-68, Nov./Dec. 2003.
[21] K. Hwang, Advanced Computer Architecture: Parallelism, Scalability, Programmability. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 1992.
[22] P.-E. Bernard, T. Gautier, and D. Trystram, "Large Scale Simulation of Parallel Molecular Dynamics," Proc. Int'l Parallel Processing Symp. (IPPS), pp. 638-644, 1999.
[23] P. Li, B. Veeravalli, and A.A. Kassim, "Design and Implementation of Parallel Video Encoding Strategies Using Divisible Load Analysis," IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1098-1112, Sept. 2005.
[24] G.W. Cook and E.J. Delp, "An Investigation of Scalable SIMD I/O Techniques with Application to Parallel JPEG Compression," J. Parallel Distributed Computing, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 111-128, 1995.
[25] D.L. Eager, J. Zahorjan, and E.D. Lozowska, "Speedup versus Efficiency in Parallel Systems," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 408-423, Mar. 1989.
[26] H. Lee, J. Kim, S. Hong, and S. Lee, "Processor Allocation and Task Scheduling of Matrix Chain Products on Parallel Systems," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distributed System, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 394-407, Apr. 2003.
[27] A. Maxiaguine, S. Künzli, and L. Thiele, "Workload Characterization Model for Tasks with Variable Execution Demand," Proc. Design, Automation and Test in Europe (DATE) Conf., p. 21040, 2004.
[28] S.-S. Lim, Y.H. Bae, G.T. Jang, B.-D. Rhee, S.L. Min, C.Y. Park, H. Shin, K. Park, S.-M. Moon, and C.S. Kim, "An Accurate Worst Case Timing Analysis for RISC Processors," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 593-604, July 1995.
[29] W. Yuan and K. Nahrstedt, "Energy-Efficient Soft Real-Time CPU Scheduling for Mobile Multimedia Systems," Proc. ACM Symp. Operating Systems Principles (SOSP), pp. 149-163, 2003.
[30] J.R. Lorch and A.J. Smith, "Improving Dynamic Voltage Scaling Algorithms with PACE," Proc. SIGMETRICS/Performance Evaluation Rev., vol. 29, pp. 50-61, 2001.
[31] J.E.G. Coffman, M.R. Garey, and D.S. Johnson, "Approximation Algorithms for Bin Packing: A Survey," Approximation Algorithms for NP-Hard Problems, D.S. Hochbaum, ed., ch. 2., pp. 46-93, PWS Publishing Co., 1996.
23 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool