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DCS: Distributed Asynchronous Clock Synchronization in Delay Tolerant Networks
March 2012 (vol. 23 no. 3)
pp. 491-504
Weihua Zhuang, Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Univ. of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada
Xuemin Shen, Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Univ. of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada
Hao Liang, Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Univ. of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada
Bong Jun Choi, Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Univ. of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada
In this paper, we propose a distributed asynchronous clock synchronization (DCS) protocol for Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). Different from existing clock synchronization protocols, the proposed DCS protocol can achieve global clock synchronization among mobile nodes within the network over asynchronous and intermittent connections with long delays. Convergence of the clock values can be reached by compensating for clock errors using mutual relative clock information that is propagated in the network by contacted nodes. The level of clock accuracy is depreciated with respect to time in order to account for long delays between contact opportunities. Mathematical analysis and simulation results for various network scenarios are presented to demonstrate the convergence and performance of the DCS protocol. It is shown that the DCS protocol can achieve faster clock convergence speed and, as a result, reduces energy cost by half for neighbor discovery.

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Index Terms:
synchronisation,delay tolerant networks,mobile communication,protocols,node contact opportunity,DCS protocol,distributed asynchronous clock synchronization,mobile node,delay tolerant network,clock value convergence,clock accuracy,neighbor discovery,Synchronization,Clocks,Protocols,Time frequency analysis,Delay,Oscillators,Convergence,power management.,Delay tolerant networks,clock synchronization,mobility
Weihua Zhuang, Xuemin Shen, Hao Liang, Bong Jun Choi, "DCS: Distributed Asynchronous Clock Synchronization in Delay Tolerant Networks," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 491-504, March 2012, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2011.179
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