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Interactivity-Constrained Server Provisioning in Large-Scale Distributed Virtual Environments
February 2012 (vol. 23 no. 2)
pp. 304-312
Xueyan Tang, Sch. of Comput. Eng., Nanyang Technol. Univ., Singapore, Singapore
Suiping Zhou, Teesside Univ., Middlesbrough, UK
Thang Nguyen, Parallel & Distrib. Comput. Centre, Nanyang Technol. Univ., Singapore, Singapore
Duong Nguyen Binh Ta, Inst. of High Performance Comput., A*STAR, Singapore, Singapore
R. Ayani, Sch. of Inf. & Commun. Technol. (ICT), R. Inst. of Technol. (KTH), Kista, Sweden
Wentong Cai, Parallel & Distrib. Comput. Centre, Nanyang Technol. Univ., Singapore, Singapore
Maintaining interactivity is one of the key challenges in distributed virtual environments (DVEs). In this paper, we consider a new problem, termed the interactivity-constrained server provisioning problem, whose goal is to minimize the number of distributed servers needed to achieve a prespecified level of interactivity. We identify and formulate two variants of this new problem and show that they are both NP-hard via reductions to the set covering problem. We then propose several computationally efficient approximation algorithms for solving the problem. The main algorithms exploit dependencies among distributed servers to make provisioning decisions. We conduct extensive experiments to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms. Specifically, we use both static Internet latency data available from prior measurements and topology generators, as well as the most recent, dynamic latency data collected via our own large-scale deployment of a DVE performance monitoring system over PlanetLab. The results show that the newly proposed algorithms that take into account interserver dependencies significantly outperform the well-established set covering algorithm for both problem variants.

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Index Terms:
virtual reality,computational complexity,distributed processing,Internet,network servers,network topology,problem solving,PlanetLab,interactivity-constrained server provision,large-scale distributed virtual environment,distributed server,NP-hard problem,set covering problem,approximation algorithm,problem solving,static Internet latency data available,topology generator,dynamic latency data,DVE performance monitoring system,Servers,Quality of service,Delay,Heuristic algorithms,Approximation algorithms,Complexity theory,Internet,interactivity.,Distributed virtual environments,server provisioning
Citation:
Xueyan Tang, Suiping Zhou, Thang Nguyen, Duong Nguyen Binh Ta, R. Ayani, Wentong Cai, "Interactivity-Constrained Server Provisioning in Large-Scale Distributed Virtual Environments," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 304-312, Feb. 2012, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2011.107
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