The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.01 - January (2012 vol.23)
pp: 168-176
Xiaorui Wang , Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH, USA
ABSTRACT
In today's data centers, precisely controlling server power consumption is an essential way to avoid system failures caused by power capacity overload or overheating due to increasingly high server density. While various power control strategies have been recently proposed, existing solutions are not scalable to control the power consumption of an entire large-scale data center, because these solutions are designed only for a single server or a rack enclosure. In a modern data center, however, power control needs to be enforced at three levels: rack enclosure, power distribution unit, and the entire data center, due to the physical and contractual power limits at each level. This paper presents SHIP, a highly scalable hierarchical power control architecture for large-scale data centers. SHIP is designed based on well-established control theory for analytical assurance of control accuracy and system stability. Empirical results on a physical testbed show that our control solution can provide precise power control, as well as power differentiations for optimized system performance and desired server priorities. In addition, our extensive simulation results based on a real trace file demonstrate the efficacy of our control solution in large-scale data centers composed of 5,415 servers.
INDEX TERMS
power control, computer centres, network servers, power aware computing, power consumption, system stability, SHIP, scalable hierarchical power control architecture, data center, server power consumption control, system failure avoidance, power capacity overload, overheating, rack enclosure, power distribution unit, Servers, Power demand, Power control, Frequency modulation, Circuit breakers, Frequency control, Monitoring, servers., Power capping, data centers, control theory, power management, scalability
CITATION
Xiaorui Wang, "SHIP: A Scalable Hierarchical Power Control Architecture for Large-Scale Data Centers", IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol.23, no. 1, pp. 168-176, January 2012, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2011.93
REFERENCES
[1] X. Wang, M. Chen, C. Lefurgy, and T.W. Keller, “SHIP: Scalable Hierarchical Power Control for Large-Scale Data Centers,” Proc. 18th Int'l Conf. Parallel Architectures and Compilation Techniques (PACT '09), 2009.
[2] X. Fan, W.-D. Weber, and L.A. Barroso, “Power Provisioning for a Warehouse-Sized Computer,” Proc. 34th Ann. Int'l Symp. Computer Architecture (ISCA '07), 2007.
[3] S. Gorman, “Power Supply Still a Vexation for the NSA,” The Baltimore Sun, June 2007.
[4] P. Ranganathan, P. Leech, D. Irwin, and J.S. Chase, “Ensemble-Level Power Management for Dense Blade Servers,” Proc. 33rd Ann. Int'l Symp. Computer Architecture (ISCA '06), 2006.
[5] X. Wang, M. Chen, and X. Fu, “MIMO Power Control for High-Density Servers in an Enclosure,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1412-1426, Oct. 2010.
[6] R. Raghavendra, P. Ranganathan, V. Talwar, Z. Wang, and X. Zhu, “No Power Struggles: Coordinated Multi-Level Power Management for the Data Center,” Proc. 13th Int'l Conf. Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS '08), 2008.
[7] X. Wang, D. Jia, C. Lu, and X. Koutsoukos, “DEUCON: Decentralized End-to-End Utilization Control for Distributed Real-Time Systems,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 996-1009, July 2007.
[8] C. Lefurgy, X. Wang, and M. Ware, “Power Capping: A Prelude to Power Shifting,” Cluster Computing, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 183-195, 2008.
[9] T. Horvath, T. Abdelzaher, K. Skadron, and X. Liu, “Dynamic Voltage Scaling in Multi-Tier Web Servers with End-to-End Delay Control,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 444-458, Apr. 2007.
[10] Y. Chen et al., “Managing Server Energy and Operational Costs in Hosting Centers,” Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS, 2005.
[11] Y. Wang, X. Wang, M. Chen, and X. Zhu, “Power-Efficient Response Time Guarantees for Virtualized Enterprise Servers,” Proc. Real-Time Systems Symp. (RTSS, 08), 2008.
[12] P. Bohrer, E.N. Elnozahy, T. Keller, M. Kistler, C. Lefurgy, C. McDowell, and R. Rajamony, “The Case for Power Management in Web Servers,” Power Aware Computing, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.
[13] J.M. Maciejowski, Predictive Control with Constraints. Prentice Hall, 2002.
[14] X. Fu et al., “Dynamic Thermal and Timeliness Guarantees for Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems,” Proc. 15th IEEE Int'l Conf. Embedded and Real-Time Systems Symp. (RTCSA '09), 2009.
[15] Nat'l Fire Prevention Assoc. “NFPA 70: National Electrical Code,” 2008.
[16] C. Lefurgy, K. Rajamani, F. Rawson, W. Felter, M. Kistler, and T.W. Keller, “Energy Management for Commercial Servers,” IEEE Computer, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 39-48, Dec. 2003.
[17] Rockwell Automation, “Bulletin 1489 Circuit Breakers Selection Guide, Publication 1489-SG001B-EN-P,” Jan. 2007.
[18] SPEC, “Power and Temperature Measurement Setup Guide SPECpower v1.1,” 2010.
[19] M. Ware et al., “Architecting for Power Management: The POWER7 Approach,” Proc. IEEE 16th Int'l Symp. High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA '10), 2010.
[20] Intel Corporation, “Voltage Regulator Module (VRM) and Enterprise Voltage Regulator-Down (EVRD) 11.1 Design Guidelines,” Sept. 2009.
[21] AMD, “White Paper Publication 26094: BIOS and Kernel Developer's Guide for AMD Athlon 64 and AMD Opteron Processors, Revision 3.30,” Feb. 2006.
[22] W. Kim, M. Gupta, G.-Y. Wei, and D. Brooks, “System Level Analysis of Fast, Per-Core DVFS Using On-Chip Switching Regulators,” Proc. IEEE 14th Int'l Symp. High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA '08), 2008.
[23] H. Zeng et al., “ECOSystem: Managing Energy as a First Class Operating System Resource,” Proc. 10th Int'l Conf. Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS '02), 2002.
[24] Y.-H. Lu, L. Benini, and G.D. Micheli, “Operating-System Directed Power Reduction,” Proc. Int"l Symp. Low Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED '00), 2000.
[25] D. Brooks and M. Martonosi, “Dynamic Thermal Management for High-Performance Microprocessors,” Proc. Seventh Int'l Symp. High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA '01), 2001.
[26] R. Nathuji and K. Schwan, “Vpm Tokens: Virtual Machine-Aware Power Budgeting in Data centers,” Proc. 17th Int'l Symp. High Performance Distributed Computing (HPDC '08), 2008.
[27] R.J. Minerick, V.W. Freeh, and P.M. Kogge, “Dynamic Power Management Using Feedback,” Proc. Workshop on Compilers and Operating Systems for Low Power (COLP '02), Sept. 2002.
[28] K. Skadron, T. Abdelzaher, and M.R. Stan, “Control-Theoretic Techniques and Thermal-RC Modeling for Accurate and Localized Dynamic Thermal Management,” Proc. Eighth Int'l Symp. High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA '02), 2002.
[29] M.E. Femal and V.W. Freeh, “Boosting Data Center Performance through Non-Uniform Power Allocation,” Proc. Second Int'l Conf. Automatic Computing (ICAC '05), 2005.
[30] S. Govindan, J. Choi, B. Urgaonkar, A. Sivasubramaniam, and A. Baldini, “Statistical Profiling-Based Techniques for Effective Provisioning of Power Infrastructure in Consolidated Data Centers,” Proc. Fourth ACM European Conf. Computer Systems (EuroSys '09), 2009.
[31] S. Pelley et al., “Power Routing: Dynamic Power Provisioning in the Data Center,” Proc. 15th Int'l Conf. Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS '10), 2010.
21 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool