This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Network Immunization with Distributed Autonomy-Oriented Entities
July 2011 (vol. 22 no. 7)
pp. 1222-1229
Chao Gao, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing
Jiming Liu, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong and Beijing University of Technology, Beijing
Ning Zhong, Maebashi Institute of Technology, Maebashi-City, and Beijing University of Technology, Beijing
Many communication systems, e.g., internet, can be modeled as complex networks. For such networks, immunization strategies are necessary for preventing malicious attacks or viruses being percolated from a node to its neighboring nodes following their connectivities. In recent years, various immunization strategies have been proposed and demonstrated, most of which rest on the assumptions that the strategies can be executed in a centralized manner and/or that the complex network at hand is reasonably stable (its topology will not change overtime). In other words, it would be difficult to apply them in a decentralized network environment, as often found in the real world. In this paper, we propose a decentralized and scalable immunization strategy based on a self-organized computing approach called autonomy-oriented computing (AOC) [1], [2]. In this strategy, autonomous behavior-based entities are deployed in a decentralized network, and are capable of collectively finding those nodes with high degrees of conductivities (i.e., those that can readily spread viruses). Through experiments involving both synthetic and real-world networks, we demonstrate that this strategy can effectively and efficiently locate highly-connected nodes in decentralized complex network environments of various topologies, and it is also scalable in handling large-scale decentralized networks. We have compared our strategy with some of the well-known strategies, including acquaintance and covering strategies on both synthetic and real-world networks.

[1] J. Liu, "Autonomy-Oriented Computing (AOC): The Nature and Implications of a Paradigm for Self-Organized Computing," Proc. Fourth Int'l Conf. Natural Computation (ICNC '08), pp. 3-11, Oct. 2008.
[2] J. Liu, X. Jin, and K.C. Tsui, Autonomy Oriented Computing (AOC): From Problem Solving to Complex Systems Modeling. Kluwer, 2005.
[3] S.H. Strogatz, "Exploring Complex Networks," Nature, vol. 410, no. 6825, pp. 268-276, May 2001.
[4] A.-L. Barabasi and R. Albert, "Emergence of Scaling in Random Networks," Science, vol. 286, no. 5439, pp. 509-512, Oct. 1999.
[5] R. Pastor-Satorras and A. Vespignani, "Immunization of Complex Networks," Physical Rev. E, vol. 65, no. 3, p. 036104, Mar. 2002.
[6] Z. Dezso and A.-L. Barabasi, "Halting Viruses in Scale-Free Networks," Physical Rev. E, vol. 65, no. 5, p. 055103, May 2002.
[7] P. Holme and B.J. Kim, "Vertex Overload Breakdown in Evolving Networks," Physical Rev. E, vol. 65, no. 6, p. 066109, June 2002.
[8] Y. Chen, G. Paul, S. Havlin, F. Liljeros, and H.E. Stanley, "Finding a Better Immunization Strategy," Physical Rev. Letters, vol. 101, no. 5, p. 058701, Aug. 2008.
[9] R. Cohen, S. Havlin, and D. Ben-Averaham, "Efficient Immunization Strategies for Computer Networks and Populations," Physical Rev. Letters, vol. 91, no. 24, p. 247901, Dec. 2003.
[10] P. Holme, "Efficient Local Strategies for Vaccination and Network Attack," Europhysics Letters, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 908-914, Nov. 2004.
[11] L.K. Gallos, F. Liljeros, P. Argyrakis, A. Bunde, and S. Havlin, "Improving Immunization Strategies," Physical Rev. E, vol. 75, no. 4, p. 045104, Apr. 2007.
[12] J. Gomez-Gardenes, P. Echenique, and Y. Moreno, "Immunization of Real Complex Communication Networks," European Physical J. B, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 259-264, Jan. 2002.
[13] P. Echenique, J. Gomez-Gardenes, Y. Moreno, and A. Vazquez, "Distance-d Covering Problem in Scale-Free Networks with Degree Correlation," Physical Rev. E, vol. 71, no. 3, p. 035102, Mar. 2005.
[14] M. Faloutsos, P. Faloutsos, and C. Faloutsos, "On Power-Law Relationships of the Internet Topology," ACM SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 251-262, Oct. 1999.
[15] M.E.J. Newman, "The Structure and Function of Complex Networks," Soc. Industrial and Applied Math. Rev., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 167-256, Mar. 2003.
[16] R. Cohen, K. Erez, D. ben Avraham, and S. Havlin, "Resilience of the Internet to Random Breakdowns," Physical Rev. Letters, vol. 85, no. 21, pp. 4626-4628, Nov. 2000.
[17] R. Pastor-Satorras and A. Vespignani, "Epidemic Spreading in Scale-Free Networks," Physical Rev. Letters, vol. 86, no. 14, pp. 3200-3203, Apr. 2001.
[18] R. Albert, H. Jeong, and A.-L. Barabas, "Error and Attack Tolerance of Complex Networks," Nature, vol. 406, no. 6794, pp. 378-382, July 2000.
[19] T.W. Sandholm and V.R. Lesser, "Coalitions among Computationally Bounded Agents," Artificial Intelligence, vol. 94, nos. 1/2, pp. 99-137, July 1997.
[20] T. Bu and D. Towsley, "On Distinguishing between Internet Power Law Topology Generators," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '02, pp. 638-647, June 2002.
[21] J. Liu, C. Gao, and N. Zhong, "An Autonomy-Oriented Paradigm for Self-Organized Computing," Proc. IEEE/WIC/ACM Int'l Conf. Intelligent Agent Technology (IAT '09), pp. 100-103, Sept. 2009.
[22] J. Liu, C. Gao, and N. Zhong, "Autonomy-Oriented Search in Dynamic Community Networks: A Case Study in Decentralized Network Immunization," Fundamenta Informaticae, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 207-226, Apr. 2010.
[23] C. Gao, J. Liu, and N. Zhong, "Network Immunization with Distributed Autonomy-Oriented Entities (Supplementary File)," Digital Library of IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, 2010.

Index Terms:
Immunization strategy, complex networks, distributed search, autonomy-oriented computing, self-organization, positive feedback, scalable computing.
Chao Gao, Jiming Liu, Ning Zhong, "Network Immunization with Distributed Autonomy-Oriented Entities," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 1222-1229, July 2011, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2010.197
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.