The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.07 - July (2011 vol.22)
pp: 1105-1119
Fong Pong , Broadcom Corporation, Santa Clara
Nian-Feng Tzeng , University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette
Packet classification is central to a wide array of Internet applications and services, with its approaches mostly involving either hardware support or optimization steps needed by software-oriented techniques (to add precomputed markers and insert rules in the search data structures). Unfortunately, an approach with hardware support is expensive and has limited scalability, whereas one with optimization fails to handle incremental rule updates effectively. This work deals with rapid packet classification, realized by hashing round-down prefixes (HaRP) in a way that the source and the destination IP prefixes specified in a rule are rounded down to “designated prefix lengths” (DPL) for indexing into hash sets. HaRP exhibits superb hash storage utilization, able to not only outperform those earlier software-oriented classification techniques but also well accommodate dynamic creation and deletion of rules. HaRP makes it possible to hold all its search data structures in the local cache of each core within a contemporary processor, dramatically elevating its classification performance. Empirical results measured on an AMD 4-way 2.8 GHz Opteron system (with 1 MB cache for each core) under six filter data sets (each with up to 30 K rules) obtained from a public source unveil that HaRP enjoys up to some 3.6{\times} throughput level achievable by the best known decision tree-based counterpart, HyperCuts (HC).
Classification rules, decision trees, filter data sets, hashing functions, incremental rule updates, IP prefixes, packet classification, routers, set-associative hash tables, tuple space search.
Fong Pong, Nian-Feng Tzeng, "HaRP: Rapid Packet Classification via Hashing Round-Down Prefixes", IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, vol.22, no. 7, pp. 1105-1119, July 2011, doi:10.1109/TPDS.2010.195
[1] A. Broder and M. Mitzenmacher, "Using Multiple Hash Functions to Improve IP Lookups," Proc. 20th Ann. Joint Conf. IEEE Computer and Comm. Soc. (INFOCOM '01), pp. 1454-1463, Apr. 2001.
[2] F. Chang et al., "Efficient Packet Classification with Digest Caches," Proc. Third Workshop Network Processors and Applications (NP-3), Feb. 2004.
[3] W.T. Chen, S.B. Shih, and J.L. Chiang, "A Two-Stage Packet Classification Algorithm," Proc. 17th Int'l Conf. Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA '03), pp. 762-767, Mar. 2003.
[4] Y.H. Cho and W.H. Magione-Smith, "Deep Packet Filter with Dedicated Logic and Read Only Memories," Proc. 12th IEEE Symp. Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines, pp. 125-134, Apr. 2004.
[5] H. Cheng et al., "Scalable Packet Classification Using Interpreting a Cross-Platform Multi-Core Solution," Proc. 13th ACM SIGPLAN Symp. Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming (PPoPP '08), pp. 33-42, Feb. 2008.
[6] S. Dharmapurikar et al., "Fast Packet Classification Using Bloom Filters," Proc. IEEE/ACM Symp. Architectures for Networking and Comm. Systems (ANCS '06), pp. 61-70, Dec. 2006.
[7] Q. Dong et al., "Wire Speed Packet Classification without TCAMs: A Few More Registers (and a Bit of Logic) Are Enough," Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS Int'l Conf. Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems (SIGMETRICS '07), pp. 253-264, June 2007.
[8] P. Gupta and N. McKeown, "Packet Classification on Multiple Fields," Proc. ACM Ann. Conf. Special Interest Group on Data Comm. (SIGCOMM '99), pp. 147-160, Aug./Sept. 1999.
[9] P. Gupta and N. McKeown, "Classifying Packets with Hierarchical Intelligent Cuttings," IEEE Micro, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 34-41, Jan./Feb. 2000.
[10] A. Kennedy, X. Wang, and B. Liu, "Energy Efficient Packet Classification Hardware Accelerator," Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Parallel and Distributed Processing (IPDPS '08), pp. 1-8, Apr. 2008.
[11] T.V. Lakshman and D. Stiliadis, "High-Speed Policy-Based Packet Forwarding Using Efficient Multi-Dimensional Range Matching," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '98, pp. 191-202, Aug./Sept. 1998.
[12] F.-Y. Lee and S. Shieh, "Packet Classification Using Diagonal-Based Tuple Space Search," Computer Networks, vol. 50, pp. 1406-1423, 2006.
[13] J. van Lunteren and T. Engbersen, "Fast and Scalable Packet Classification," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 560-571, May 2003.
[14] F. Pong and N.-F. Tzeng, "Hashing Round-Down Prefixes for Rapid Packet Classification," Proc. USENIX Ann. Technical Conf. (USENIX '09), June 2009.
[15] D. Shah and P. Gupta, "Fast Incremental Updates on Ternary-CAMs for Routing Lookups and Packet Classification," Proc. Eighth Ann. IEEE Symp. High-Performance Interconnects (Hot Interconnects '08), pp. 145-153, Aug. 2000.
[16] S. Singh et al., "Packet Classification Using Multidimensional Cutting," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '03, pp. 213-114, Aug. 2003.
[17] H. Song and J.W. Lockwood, "Efficient Packet Classification for Network Intrusion Detection Using FPGA," Proc. ACM/SIGDA 13th Int'l Symp. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA '05), pp. 238-245, Feb. 2005.
[18] V. Srinivasan, S. Suri, and G. Varghese, "Packet Classification Using Tuple Space Search," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM '99, pp. 135-146, Aug./Sept. 1999.
[19] D.E. Taylor, "Survey and Taxonomy of Packet Classification Techniques," ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 238-275, Sept. 2005.
[20] D.E. Taylor and J.S. Turner, "ClassBench: A Packet Classification Benchmark," Proc. 24th IEEE INFOCOM '05, Mar. 2005.
[21] G. Wang and N.-F. Tzeng, "TCAM-Based Forwarding engine with Minimum Independent Prefix Set (MIPS) for Fast Updating," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '06), June 2006.
[22] P. Warkhede, S. Suri, and G. Varghese, "Fast Packet Classification for Two-Dimensional Conflict-Free Filters," Proc. 20th IEEE INFOCOM '01, pp. 1434-1443, Apr. 2001.
[23] Washington Univ., "Evaluation of Packet Classification Algorithms," . Feb. 2007.
[24] Z. Wu, M. Xie, and H. Wang, "Swift: A Fast Dynamic Packet Filter," Proc. Fifth USENIX Symp. Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI '08), pp. 279-292, Apr. 2008.
[25] L. Xu et al., "Packet Classification Algorithms: From Theory to Practice," Proc. 28th IEEE INFOCOM '09, Apr. 2009.
20 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool